ISExam2StudyGuide - Chapter 4 Cookies Small text files with...

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Chapter 4 Cookies  –Small text files with a unique ID tag –Embedded in a Web browser  –Saved on the user’s hard drive  •Can be useful or intrusive Spyware  –Software that secretly gathers information about users while they browse the Web –Can be used maliciously Adware  –Form of spyware  –Collects information about the user to display advertisements in the Web browser  –Pop-up, Pop-under Phishing  –Sending fraudulent e-mails that seem to come from legitimate sources  Pharming –Direct e-mail recipients to false Web sites to capture private information  Keyloggers –Monitor and record keystrokes  –Can be software or hardware devices –Sometimes used by companies to track employees’ use of e-mail and the Internet  –Can be used for malicious purposes  Sniffing   –Capturing and recording network traffic  –Often used by hackers to intercept information Spoofing   –Attempt to gain access to a network by posing as an authorized user to find sensitive information •Computer fraud  –Unauthorized use of computer data for personal gain  –Denial-of-service attacks /DDoS/Zombienets –NORA •Federal laws now regulate collecting and using information on people and corporations  –1970 Fair Credit Reporting Act & amendments –Gramm-Leach-Bliley –PATRIOT act Acceptable use policies  Spamming –Unsolicited e-mail sent for advertising purpose  –Sent in bulk by using automated mailing software –Zombienets  Log files –Generated by Web server software –Record a user’s actions on a Web site  Intellectual property  –Protections that involve copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents for “creations of the  mind” developed by people or businesses Copyrighted material –Literary and artistic works –May apply to online materials –Exceptions under Fair Use Doctrine Trademark –Protects product names and identifying marks Patent  –Protects new processes 
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