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Final Exam Study Guide Outline

Final Exam Study Guide Outline - Names to recognize...

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Names to recognize & identify (include theories & experiments): Freud -Studied the unconscious mind, behav influenced by uncon desires, impulses, & thoughts: example = sex or aggression, Psychoanalysis (free association-say anything that comes to mind, dream interpretation-symbolic, resistances-blockage of free assoc., & transference) Kubler-Ross - SHE studied the emotional stages of death & dying Pavlov (B) -conditioned reflexes, studied classical conditioning aka respondent conditioning Watson (B) -developed the behavioristic view; studied observable behavior/actions NOT subject’s thoughts Skinner (B) -studied simple behavior w/controlled conditions; believed actions r controlled by reward/punishment, operant/instrumental conditionong Piaget (D) -believed kids mature thru series of cognitive stages; Intellectual Growth= Assimilation+Accommodation Chomsky -biological predisposition; Lang development; Spanish mom=preSpanish baby Vygotsky -sociocultural theory, kids expand mental ability/get smarter thru convos with smart adults; called “scaffolding” Kohlberg - said we learn moral values from reasoning thru an exposure to moral dilemma. Erikson (D) -developed “life-stage theory” of human develop; we face psychosocial-dilemma/crisis at each stage Binet -Designed 1st intelligence test; today it is called the “Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale” Washburn -First woman Ph.D. in psychology Gardner -Theory of multiple intelligence Wundt -Used introspection & careful measurement Maslow (H) -Developed humanistic psychology, hierarchy of needs, self-actualization Rogers (H) - the fully functioning person Seligman (H) pos.psych - learned helplessness Perls -(Insight Therapist)Emotional health comes from knowing what you want to do not should do Milgram -(soc psych)obedience studies Asch -(soc psych)group pressure & conformity experiments Allport (personality psych) -founder of trait theory Cattell -16 factors of personality CH 9: (Important Sections: 9.1, 9.2, & 9.3) 9.1 Chapter Review Behavior can be activated either by needs (push) or by goals (pull) The attractiveness of a goal & its ability to initiate action are related to its incentive value Most primary motives= maintain homeostasis Circadian rhythms are closely ties to sleep, activity, & energy cycles Main Vocab Homeostasis: A steady state of body equilibrium Motivation: Motives initiate, sustain, & direct activities (Need Drive Response Goal Goal Attained Need Reduction) Drive: The psychological expression of internal needs or valued goals-for example, hunger, thirst, or a drive for success Incentive Value: The value of a goal above & beyond its ability to fill a need (Desirable goals, ice cream over a carrot) Primary motives: Innate motives based on biological needs (Thirst, hunger, pain avoidance, needs for air, sleep, elimination of waste, & body temp regulation) Secondary motives: Motives based on learned needs, drives, & goals (Needs for power, affiliation, approval, status, security, & achievement) Stimulus motives: Innate needs for stimulation & information
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