Motivation and Emotion Study Guide_Exam 1

Motivation and Emotion Study Guide_Exam 1 - Motivation and...

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Motivation and Emotion Study Guide: Exam 1 I. Motivation: the processes that give behavior energy and direction. These processes are biological/physiological needs, cognitions, emotions, environmental conditions/external events. a. At any one time we have multiple motivations and needs b. Expressions of motivation: i. Behavior: attention, effort, latency, persistence, choice, probability of response, facial expression, bodily gestures ii. Engagement: emotional, cognitive and voice aspects of involving oneself in an activity iii. Physiology: cardio, plasma, ocular, electrodermal, skeletal, and brain activity iv. Self report: measure motivational states c. 8 themes of studying motivation i. Motivation benefits adaptation ii. Motives direct attention and prepare action iii. Motives vary overtime and influence to ongoing stream of behavior iv. Types of motivation exist v. Motivation includes both approach and avoidance tendencies vi. Motivation study reveals what people want vii. To flourish, motivation need supportive conditions viii.There is nothing so practical as good theory II. Emotion: short lived subjective-physiological-functional expressive phenomena that orchestrate how we react adaptively to the important events in our lives III. History of Motivation a. Philosophical origins of motivational concepts (Grand Theories) 1. Grand theories: reductionist point of view- reduce the causes of all behavior to just one ii. Will and Bodily desires iii. Instinct
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Physiological analysis 2. Darwin: reproductive fitness. Basic emotions are primitive instincts that have an adaptive function 3. William James: we have impulses to act and the reflexes to produce action 4. William McDougall- we have distinct instincts (came up with 6,000 instincts) iv. Drive (Freud, Hull) 1. Motivation is a departure from biological homeostasis, we experience “drive” to get back to homeostasis 2. Freud: Source-> Impetus -> Aim -> Object 3. Hull: Motivational drives are physio based, and energized all behavior. Habit directed the behavior v. Incentive, Arousal, Discrepancy 1. The role of learning and incentives (Watson and Skinner) 2. Role of the Individual (Rogers and Maslow) b. Rise of Mini Theories 1. Mini theories: limited to specific phenomena, seek to investigate and explain some but not all of motivated behavior a. modern psych is made up of numerous theories to better reflect the diversity of human experience ii. Active Nature of the Person iii. Cognitive Revolution (Humanistic) iv. Applied Socially Relevant Research c. Contemporary Era d. In sum, went from simplistic concepts to a collection of sophisticated insights in multiple fields- a new paradigm that suggests behavior is energized and directed by a multitude of co-acting influences, not a single grand cause. IV. The Brain
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Motivation and Emotion Study Guide_Exam 1 - Motivation and...

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