Anthropology - Exam 2 Review

Anthropology - Exam 2 Review - Chapter 5 A. Demography: the...

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Chapter 5 A. Demography: the study of population dynamics in cross-cultural perspective a. Fertility: the rate of births in a population, or the rate of population increase in general b. Mortality: deaths in a population, or the rate of population decline in general or from particular causes c. Migration: the movement of a person or people from one place to another B. Modes of Reproduction: the predominant pattern of fertility or mortality in a culture a. Foraging Mode of Reproduction: i. Existed for most of human prehistory ii. Population Growth: moderate birth and death rates iii. Value of Children: moderate iv. Fertility Control: 1. Indirect—low-fat diet, work and exercise, prolonged breastfeeding, etc. 2. Direct—induced abortion, infanticide v. Social Aspects: homogenous fertility, few specialists b. Agricultural Mode of Reproduction: i. Emerged with farming and sedentism (permanent settlements) ii. Pronatalism: ideology promoting many children iii. Population Growth: high birth rates, declining death rates iv. Value of Children: high v. Fertility Control: 1. Increased reliance on direct means 2. Pronatalist techniques—herbs 3. Direct Means—induced abortion, infanticide vi. Social Aspects: emerging class differences, increasing specialization (midwifery, herbalists) c. Industrialism/Informatics Mode of Reproduction: i. Replacement-level fertility: a situation when births equal deaths, leading to maintenance of current population size ii. Below-replacement-level Fertility: a situation in which births are fewer than deaths, leading to population decline iii. Demographic Transition: the change from the agricultural pattern of high fertility and high mortality to the industrial pattern of low fertility and low mortality iv. Population Growth: industrialized nations—negative pop growth; developing nations— high v. Value of Children – High vi. Fertility Control: 1. Direct methods grounded in science and medicine 2. Chemical forms of contraception 3. In vitro fertilization 4. Abortion vii. Social Aspects: stratified fertility [(globally, nationally, and locally), middle/upper class have less kids]; highly developed specialization) C. Culture and Fertility a. Sexual Intercourse i. Menarche: onset of menstruation; age 12-14; girls in richer countries=earlier ii. Menopause: cessation of menstruation; age 40-50, later age in richer countries b. Intercourse Frequency and Fertility i. Frequency varies widely cross-culturally ii. High intercourse frequency doesn’t necessarily mean high fertility rates c. Fertility Decision Making i. At the Family Level: 1. Important Factors--children’s labor value, children’s value as old-age supporters for parents, infant and child mortality rates, economic costs of children
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2. Sex-Selective Infanticide: killing of infant or child because of its sex ii. At the State Level: 1. Govs make policies that are pronatalist or antinatalist iii. At the Global Level—economic and political interests (i.e., pharmaceuticals and religious
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course ANTH 102 taught by Professor Almeida during the Spring '09 term at Case Western.

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Anthropology - Exam 2 Review - Chapter 5 A. Demography: the...

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