{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Anthropology - Exam 2 Review

Anthropology - Exam 2 Review - Chapter 5 A Demography the...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5 A. Demography: the study of population dynamics in cross-cultural perspective a. Fertility: the rate of births in a population, or the rate of population increase in general b. Mortality: deaths in a population, or the rate of population decline in general or from particular causes c. Migration: the movement of a person or people from one place to another B. Modes of Reproduction: the predominant pattern of fertility or mortality in a culture a. Foraging Mode of Reproduction: i. Existed for most of human prehistory ii. Population Growth: moderate birth and death rates iii. Value of Children: moderate iv. Fertility Control: 1. Indirect—low-fat diet, work and exercise, prolonged breastfeeding, etc. 2. Direct—induced abortion, infanticide v. Social Aspects: homogenous fertility, few specialists b. Agricultural Mode of Reproduction: i. Emerged with farming and sedentism (permanent settlements) ii. Pronatalism: ideology promoting many children iii. Population Growth: high birth rates, declining death rates iv. Value of Children: high v. Fertility Control: 1. Increased reliance on direct means 2. Pronatalist techniques—herbs 3. Direct Means—induced abortion, infanticide vi. Social Aspects: emerging class differences, increasing specialization (midwifery, herbalists) c. Industrialism/Informatics Mode of Reproduction: i. Replacement-level fertility: a situation when births equal deaths, leading to maintenance of current population size ii. Below-replacement-level Fertility: a situation in which births are fewer than deaths, leading to population decline iii. Demographic Transition: the change from the agricultural pattern of high fertility and high mortality to the industrial pattern of low fertility and low mortality iv. Population Growth: industrialized nations—negative pop growth; developing nations— high v. Value of Children – High vi. Fertility Control: 1. Direct methods grounded in science and medicine 2. Chemical forms of contraception 3. In vitro fertilization 4. Abortion vii. Social Aspects: stratified fertility [(globally, nationally, and locally), middle/upper class have less kids]; highly developed specialization) C. Culture and Fertility a. Sexual Intercourse i. Menarche: onset of menstruation; age 12-14; girls in richer countries=earlier ii. Menopause: cessation of menstruation; age 40-50, later age in richer countries b. Intercourse Frequency and Fertility i. Frequency varies widely cross-culturally ii. High intercourse frequency doesn’t necessarily mean high fertility rates c. Fertility Decision Making i. At the Family Level: 1. Important Factors--children’s labor value, children’s value as old-age supporters for parents, infant and child mortality rates, economic costs of children
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2. Sex-Selective Infanticide: killing of infant or child because of its sex ii. At the State Level: 1. Govs make policies that are pronatalist or antinatalist iii. At the Global Level—economic and political interests (i.e., pharmaceuticals and religious leaders) influence the reproductive policies of countries and, in turn, of families and
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern