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Unformatted text preview: J. Peraire, S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2008 Version 1.0 Lecture L22  2D Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy
In this lecture, we will revisit the principle of work and energy introduced in lecture L1113 for particle dynamics, and extend it to 2D rigid body dynamics. Kinetic Energy for a 2D Rigid Body
We start by recalling the kinetic energy expression for a system of particles derived in lecture L11, T = where n is the total number of particles, mi denotes the mass of particle i, and r is the position vector of i n particle i with respect to the center of mass, G. Also, m = i=1 mi is the total mass of the system, and plus the kinetic energy due to the motion of the particles relative to the center of mass, G. For a 2D rigid body, the velocity of all particles relative to the center of mass is a pure rotation. Thus, we can write i r = r . i Therefore, we have
n 1 i=1 n 1 1 2 mvG + mi ri 2 , 2 2 i=1 v G is the velocity of the center of mass. The above expression states that the kinetic energy of a system of particles equals the kinetic energy of a particle of mass m moving with the velocity of the center of mass, 2 mi ri 2 = where we have used the fact that and is simply, n 1 i=1 2 mi ( r ) ( r ) = i i r i are perpendicular. The term n 1 i=1 2 mi ri 2 2 , the moment of inertia, IG , about the center of mass, G. Therefore, for a 2D rigid body, the kinetic energy T = 1 1 mv 2 + IG 2 . 2 G 2 1 (1) n i=1 mi ri 2 is easily recognized as 2 When the body is rotating about a fixed point O, we can write IO = IG + mrG and T = since vG = rG . 1 1 1 2 mv 2 + (IO  mrG ) 2 = IO 2 , 2 G 2 2 The above expression is also applicable in the more general case when there is no fixed point in the motion, provided that O is replaced by the instantaneous center of rotation. Thus, in general, T = 1 IC 2 . 2 We shall see that, when the instantaneous center of rotation is known, the use of the above expression does simplify the algebra considerably. Example Rolling Cylinder Consider the cylinder rolling without slipping on a flat plane. The friction between the plane and the cylinder insure the noslip condition, but the friction force does no work. The noslip condition requires = VG /R0 ). We take the cylinder to have its center of mass at the center of the cylinder but we allow the mass distribution to be nonunform by allowing a radius of gyration kG . For a uniform cylinder kG = R0 / 2 The total kinetic energy, from equation (1) is given by T = 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 mVG + mkG VG /R0 = m(R0 + kG ) 2 = IC 2 2 2 2 2 (2) where the parallel axis theorem has been used to relate the moment of inertia about the contact point C to the moment of inertia about the center of mass. 2 Work
External Forces
Since the body is rigid and the internal forces act in equal and opposite directions, only the external forces applied to the rigid body are capable of doing any work. Thus, the total work done on the body will be
n i=1 n i=1 (Wi )12 = (r i )2 (r i )1 F i dr , where F i is the sum of all the external forces acting on particle i. Work done by couples If the sum of the external forces acting on the rigid body is zero, it is still possible to have nonzero work. Consider, for instance, a moment M = F a acting on a rigid body. If the body undergoes a pure translation, it is clear that all the points in the body experience the same displacement, and, hence, the total work done by a couple is zero. On the other hand, if the body experiences a rotation d, then the work done by the couple is dW = F a a d + F d = F ad = M d . 2 2 If M is constant, the work is simply W12 = M (2  1 ). In other words, the couples do work which results in the kinetic energy of rotation. Conservative Forces
When the forces can be derived from a potential energy function, V , we say the forces are conservative. In simple form. Recall that a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a force to be conservative is that it such cases, we have that F = V , and the work and energy relation in equation 4 takes a particularly must be a function of position only, i.e. F (r) and V (r). Common examples of conservative forces are gravity (a constant force independent of the height), gravitational attraction between two bodies (a force inversely proportional to the squared distance between the bodies), and the force of a perfectly elastic spring. 3 The work done by a conservative force between position r 1 and r 2 is r2 r W12 = F dr = [V ]r2 = V (r 1 )  V (r 2 ) = V1  V2 . 1
r1 NC Thus, if we call W12 the work done by all the external forces which are non conservative, we can write the general expression,
NC T1 + V1 + W12 = T2 + V2 . Of course, if all the forces that do work are conservative, we obtain conservation of total energy, which can be expressed as, T + V = constant . Gravity Potential for a Rigid Body
In this case, the potential Vi associated with particle i is simply Vi = mi gzi , where zi is the height of particle the whole body will be
n i=1 i above some reference height. The force acting on particle i will then be F i = Vi . The work done on
r2 i n i=1 n i=1 r1 i F i dr i = ((Vi )1  (Vi )2 ) = mi g((zi )1  (zi )2 = V1  V2 , where the gravity potential for the rigid body is simply, V =
n i=1 mi gzi = mgzG , where zG is the z coordinate of the center of mass. It's obvious but worth noting that because the gravitational potential is taken about the center of mass, the inertia plays no role in determining the gravitational potential. Example Cylinder on a Ramp We consider a homogeneous cylinder released from rest at the top of a ramp of angle , and use conservation of energy to derive an expression for the velocity of the cylinder. Conservation of energy implies that T +V = Tinitial +Vinitial . Initially, the kinetic energy is zero, Tinitial = 0. Thus, for a later time, the kinetic energy is given by T = Vinitial  V = mgs sin , 4 where s is the distance traveled down the ramp. The kinetic energy is simply T = velocity. Thus, IC 2 = 2mgs sin , or, v2 = 2gs sin , 1 + (IG /mR2 ) 1 2 2 IC , where IC = IG + mR2 is the moment of inertia about the instantaneous center of rotation C, and is the angular since = v/R. For the general case of a cylinder with the center of mass at the center of the circle but an
2 uneven mass distribution, we write T = 1 m(1 + kG /R2 ), where the effect of mass distribution is captured 2 in kG ; the smaller kG , the more concentrated the mass about the center of the cylinder. Then v2 = 2gssin 2 1 + kG /R2 (3) This equation shows that the more the mass is concentrated towards the center of the cylinder (kG small), a higher velocity will be reached for a given height, i.e less of the potential energy will go into rotational kinetic energy. Equilibrium and Stability
If all the forces acting on the body are conservative, then the potential energy can be used very effectively to determine the equilibrium positions of a system and the nature of the stability at these positions. Let us assume that all the forces acting on the system can be derived from a potential energy function, V . It is body is at rest (kinetic energy zero), then there will be no forces (and hence, no acceleration) to change the equilibrium, since the resultant force F is zero. Once equilibrium has been established, the stability of the equilibrium point can be determine by examining the shape of the potential function. If the potential function has a minimum at the equilibrium point, then the equilibrium will be stable. This means that if the potential energy is at a minimum, there is no potential energy left that can be traded for kinetic energy. Analogously, if the potential energy is at a maximum, then the equilibrium point is unstable. Example Equilibrium and Stability clear that if F = V = 0 for some position, this will be a point of equilibrium in the sense that if the A cylinder of radius R, for which the center of gravity, G, is at a distance d from the geometric center, C, lies on a rough plane inclined at an angle . 5 Since gravity is the only external force acting on the cylinder that is capable of doing any work, we can examine the equilibrium and stability of the system by considering the potential energy function. We have zC = zC0  R sin , where zC0 is the value of zC when = 0. Thus, since d = CG, we have, V = mgzG = mg(zC + d sin ) = mg(zC0  R sin + d sin ) . The equilibrium points are given by V = 0, but, in this case, since the position of the system is uniquely dV , d determined by a single coordinate, e.g. , we can write V = which implies that, for equilibrium, dV /d = mg(R sin + d cos ) = 0, or, cos = (R sin )/d. If d < R sin , there will be no equilibrium positions. On the other hand, if d R sin , then eq. = equilibrium point (i.e. cos = cos()). cos1 [(R sin )/d] is an equilibrium point. We note that if eq. is an equilibrium point, then eq. is also an In order to study the stability of the equilibrium points, we need to determine whether the potential energy then d2 V /d2 > 0 and the potential energy is a minimum at that point. Consequently, for eq. < 0, the equilibrium is stable. On the other hand, for eq. > 0, the equilibrium point is unstable. is a maximum or a minimum at these points. Since d2 V /d2 = mgd sin , we have that when eq. < 0, Example Oscillating Cylinder and Ellipse Consider the solid semicircle at rest on a flat plane in the presence of gravity. At rest, it is in equilibrium since the gravitational moments balance. We consider that it tips and rolls, keeping the noslip condition satisfied. This motion results in a vertical displacement of the center of mass, y and a horizontal displacement of the center of mass x, where y and x can be found from the geometry. 6 To determine the stability, we consider the change in potential energy, V (). Only the vertical displacement of the center of mass contributes to a change in potential. If we expand the potential V () for small , we will get an expression V () = A2 . (Recall that for the pendulum, V () = mgL2 /2.) The question of stability depends upon the sign of A. If A is positive, the system is stable; if A is negative, the system is unstable. For positive A, the next step is to determine the frequency of oscillation. It is obvious that the semicircle will oscillate about is center of symmetry. To determine the frequency, we need to identify TM AX , the maximum value of kinetic energy. The system has both translation and rotational kinetic energy, and both will be at their maximum values when the system moves through the point of symmetry, = 0. The translational kinetic energy will reflect the maximum velocity of the center of mass; the rotation kinetic energy, the maximum value of the angular velocity as the system moves through the point of symmetry. We now consider the two systems shown in the figure. These are simply semiellipses resting on a flat plane. 7 Again, the point of symmetry will be an equilibrium point since the gravitational moments will balance. But the question of stability relates to whether the center of mass moves up or down as increases. We have V () = A2 , with stability for A > 0 and instability for < 0. We feel instinctively, that one of these systemsthe tall skinny one is unstable. This implies that it will not remain balanced about the equilibrium point, but will tip over. ADDITIONAL READING J.L. Meriam and L.G. Kraige, Engineering Mechanics, DYNAMICS, 5th Edition 6/6, 6/7 8 Recall that the work done by a force, F , over an infinitesimal displacement, dr, is dW = F dr. If F total i denotes the resultant of all forces acting on particle i, then we can write, dWi = F total dr i = mi i dv i 1 2 dr i = mi v i dv i = d( mi vi ) = d(Ti ) , dt 2 where we have assumed that the velocity is measured relative to an inertial reference frame, and, hence, F total = mi ai . The above equation states that the work done on particle i by the resultant force F total is i i equal to the change in its kinetic energy. The total work done on particle i, when moving from position 1 to position 2, is 2 (Wi )12 = dWi ,
1 and, summing over all particles, we obtain the principle of work and energy for systems of particles, T1 +
n i=1 (Wi )12 = T2 . (4) The force acting on each particle will be the sum of the internal forces caused by the other particles, and the external forces. We now consider separately the work done by the internal and external forces. Internal Forces
We shall assume, once again, that the internal forces due to interactions between particles act along the lines joining the particles, thereby satisfying Newton's third law. Thus, if f ij denotes the force that particle j Let us now look at two particles, i and j, undergoing an infinitesimal rigid body motion, and consider the term, f ij dr i + f ji dr j . If we write dr j = dr i + d(r j  r i ), then, f ij dr i + f ji dr j = f ij (dr i  dr i )  f ij d(r j  r i ) = f ij d(r j  r i ). It turns out that f ij d(r j  r i ) is zero, since d(r j  r i ) is perpendicular to r j  r i , and hence it is also perpendicular to f ij . The orthogonality between d(r j r i ) and r j r i follows from the fact that the distance thus differentiating, we have 2d(r j  r i ) (r j  r i ) = 0). (5) exerts on particle i, we have that f ij is parallel to r i  r j , and satisfies f ij = f ji . between any two particles in a rigid body must remain constant (i.e. (r j  r i ) (r j  r i ) = (rj  ri )2 = const; 9 We conclude that, since all the work done by the internal forces can be written as a sum of terms of the n form 5, then the contribution of all the internal forces to the term i=1 (Wi )12 in equation 4, is zero. 10 MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 16.07 Dynamics
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course DYNAM 101 taught by Professor Matuka during the Spring '11 term at MIT.
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