S.
Widnall
16.07
Dynamics
Fall
2009
Version
2.0
Lecture
L1
 Introduction
Introduction
In
this
course
we
will
study
Classical
Mechanics
and
its
application
to
aerospace
systems.
Particle
motion
in
Classical
Mechanics
is
governed
by
Newton’s
laws
and
is
sometimes
referred
to
as
Newtonian
Mechanics.
The
motion
of
extended
rigid
bodies
is
analyzed
by
application
of
Newton’s
law
to
a
multiparticle
system.
These
laws
are
empirical
in
that
they
combine
observations
from
nature
and
some
intuitive
concepts.
Newton’s
laws
of
motion
are
not
self
evident.
For
instance,
in
Aristotelian
mechanics
before
Newton,
a
force
was
thought
to
be
required
in
order
to
maintain
motion.
Much
of
the
foundation
for
Newtonian
mechanics
was
laid
by
Galileo
at
the
end
of
the
16th
century.
Newton,
in
the
middle
of
the
17th
century
stated
the
laws
of
motion
in
the
form
we
know
and
use
them
today,
and
shortly
after,
he
formulated
the
law
of
universal
attraction.
This
led
to
a
complete
theory
with
which
he
was
able
to
explain
many
observed
phenomena,
in
particular
the
motion
of
the
planets.
Nevertheless,
these
laws
still
left
many
unanswered
questions
at
that
time,
and
it
was
not
until
later
years
that
the
principles
of
classical
mechanics
were
deeply
studied
and
rationalized.
In
the
eighteenth
century,
there
were
many
contributions
in
this
direction,
such
as
the
principle
of
virtual
work
by
Bernoulli,
D’Alambert’s
principle
and
the
theory
of
rigid
body
dynamics
developed
by
Euler.
In
the
nineteenth
century,
Lagrange
and
later
Poisson,
Hamilton
and
Jacobi
developed
the
so
called
analytical
or
rational
mechanics
and
gave
to
the
theory
of
Newtonian
mechanics
a
much
richer
mathematical
structure.
Classical
Mechanics
has
its
limitations
and
breaks
down
where
more
modern
theories
such
as
relativity
and
quantum
mechanics,
developed
in
the
twentieth
century,
are
successful.
Newtonian
mechanics
breaks
down
for
systems
moving
at
speeds
comparable
with
the
speed
of
light,
and
also
fails
for
systems
of
dimensions
comparable
to
the
size
of
the
atom.
Nevertheless,
for
practical
engineering
applications,
Newtonian
mechanics
provides
a
very
good
model
to
represent
reality,
and,
in
fact,
it
is
hard
to
find
examples
in
aerospace
where
Newtonian
mechanics
is
not
adequate.
The
most
notable
perhaps
are
the
relativistic
corrections
that
need
to
be
made
for
modeling
satellite
communications.
16.07’s
Place
in
the
AeroAstro
Curriculum
AeroAstro
focuses
on
the
analysis,
design
and
control
of
aerospace
vehicles,
both
aircraft
and
space
craft
and
the
environment
in
which
they
are
used.
The
place
of
16.07
within
the
overall
curriculum
is
shown
in
Figure
1.
1
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16.07
is
a
core
discipline
of
aerospace
engineering:
dealing
with
the
natural
dynamics
of
aeroastro
systems.
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 Spring '11
 MAtuka
 Force, Mass, Newtonian mechanics

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