SIO40lecture7

SIO40lecture7 - SIO 40 Life and Climate on Earth October 8...

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SIO 40 – Life and Climate on Earth October 8, 20 Lecture 7 – Atmosphere: Energy balance and greenhouse effect
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Outline - Earth's radiation balance - Shortwave and longwave radiation - Structure of the atmosphere - Atmospheric composition - Physical/chemical basis of greenhouse effect - Clouds and aerosols - Detailed radiation budget - Feedback loops
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Planetary energy balance Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html Earth’s surface temperature depends on: 1) Incoming radiation from the sun 2) Reflection/absorption of sun’s radiation by the Earth 3) Absorption/emission of radiation by Earth’s atmosphere Spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. Visible light ranges between about 400-700 nm. About half of the radiation emitted from the sun is in this range, with some also in the ulraviolet (10%) and infrared range (40%).
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Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html Reflection vs absorption of incoming solar radiation Earth absorbs about 70% of the incoming solar radiation, and reflects 30%. The reflectivity of Earth's surface and atmosphere is referred to as albedo and is an important control on climate. Reflected radiation is re-directed back into space unchanged (above left). Absorbed radiation is converted into heat energy and re-emitted at longer wavelengths (above right). Reflection Absorption
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Radiation spectrum of the Sun Radiation spectrum of the Earth Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html The relative spectra of the radiation emitted by the Sun and Earth show how the Earth absorbs short-wave solar radiation (mostly in the visible light range) and re-emits it at longer infrared wavelengths. Note also the much greater intensity of the radiation from the Sun, in accordance with its much higher temperature.
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Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course SIO 40 taught by Professor Barbeau,k during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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SIO40lecture7 - SIO 40 Life and Climate on Earth October 8...

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