SIO40lecture8

SIO40lecture8 - SIO 40 Life and Climate on Earth Monday...

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SIO 40 – Life and Climate on Earth Monday Oct. 11, 2010 Lecture 8 – Atmosphere: Circulation and Hydrologic Cycle Atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation patterns are closely related
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Outline - Global energy distribution - Global atmospheric circulation - Circulation cells and Coriolis force - General circulation patterns - Seasonal influence - Precipitation patterns, land/ocean interactions - Hydrologic cycle - water movements and major reservoirs - humidity/air temp relationships - Distribution of climate zones
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Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html Latitudinal variation of incoming solar radiation The amount of solar insolation received at the Earth's surface varies with latitude (right), due to a combination of the angle at which the sun's rays hit the Earth, and variations in the day length with latitude. Equatorial regions receive the most solar insolation, while polar regions receive the least. Light intensity is greatest at the equator because the angle of the sun's rays is perpendicular to the surface. At the poles, the same amount of light arrives at an oblique angle and is spread out over a greater surface area, thus the intensity is reduced.
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Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html Absorbed solar energy Emitted infrared energy Considering the net sum of incoming shortwave radiation and outgoing longwave radiation on a global basis, there is an excess of solar radiation being received at the equator and a deficit at the poles. This requires a net transfer of heat from the equator to the poles. Heat is transferred by the atmosphere and oceans in the form of sensible heat (ie. warming the atmosphere), surface heat (warming the ocean) and latent heat. Latent heat is heat absorbed by the conversion of water from solid to liquid (melting) or liquid to vapor (evaporation). Water vapor formed at the equator moves poleward through the atmosphere and eventually condenses, releasing latent heat at higher latitudes.
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Pidwirny, M. (2006). Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html Wind develops as a result of spatial differences in atmospheric pressure, usually due to uneven heating of the Earth's surface. Heating causes warm air to become less dense and rise due to convection, cooling causes air to become more dense and sink. The pressure gradient thus created in the lower atmosphere causes air to move horizontally from the area of high pressure to the area of low pressure. This situation also creates a pressure gradient at High altitudes. This creates a flow at high altitudes from the high pressure area towards the low pressure area. Underneath the high altitude low is an area of high pressure created by cooling temperatures, and a lower altitude return flow towards the low altitude low created by the
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course SIO 40 taught by Professor Barbeau,k during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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SIO40lecture8 - SIO 40 Life and Climate on Earth Monday...

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