SIO40lecture19

SIO40lecture19 - SIO 40 Life and Climate on Earth Nov. 17,...

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SIO 40 – Life and Climate on Earth Nov. 17, 2010 Lecture 20 – Impacts of Climate Change
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Global warming impact summary from the IPCC AR4 Global warming is projected to apply stresses to human societies and ecosystems in a variety of ways.
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Future climate change impacts on water Mean % change in annual runoff between present and 2100 In many regions of the globe, climate change impacts on freshwater resources may affect sustainable development and put at risk, for example, the reduction of poverty and child mortality. Even with optimal water management, it is very likely that negative impacts on sustainable development cannot be avoided. This figure shows some key cases around the world where freshwater-related climate change impacts are a threat to the sustainable development of the affected regions.
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Biodiversity and climate change The IPCC report states with medium confidence that 20-30% of plants and animals will be subject to increased risk of extinction if global temperatures rise to 2 ° C above the pre-industrial level and perhaps 40-70% of species will be at risk of extinction if temperatures rise by 4 ° C. These temperature changes are well within the range of reasonable projected possibilities.
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5 major extinctions in the last 500 million years……. Biodiversity on Earth as reflected in the fossil record available since the Cambrian period has oscillated in response to evolution and extinction pressures. There have been 5 major periods of mass extinction over the past 540 million years. The largest of these was the End Permian extinction 251 million years ago, when about 95% of all species became extinct. Large-scale volcanism and/or meteorite impacts, with their associated effects on global climate, are often implicated as causes of mass extinctions .
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………are we experiencing the 6 th great extinction? Human intervention is a new and powerful force in global climate, which some have likened to the forces which led to mass extinctions of life in the past, like large asteroid impacts. Human-induced climate change increases the extinction potential for species, by adding additional stress to populations that are often already under stress due to human pressures on the biosphere. Climate change can stress populations by altering local habitat, forcing a change in the reproductive cycles, migratory patterns, or geographical range of populations. One thing that makes the current climate change so challenging
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SIO40lecture19 - SIO 40 Life and Climate on Earth Nov. 17,...

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