Ch10Cognitionnotes

Ch10Cognitionnotes - Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology...

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Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology Chapter 10 Reasoning and Decision Making
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Syllogistic Reasoning Valid deductive conclusions necessarily follow from the premises. All A are B (All professors are birds) All B are C (All birds are aliens) All A are C (All professors are aliens)
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Syllogistic Reasoning Most syllogistic forms are invalid: All A are B Some B are C Some A are C? Not necessarily! No A are B No B are C No A are C? Not necessarily!
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Cognitive Constraints Working memory limits the number of alternatives considered. Illicit conversion: misinterpreting “All A are B” to mean “All B are A.” Belief bias: humans in diverse cultures accept conclusions as valid when they fit cultural beliefs.
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Conditional Reasoning (If P, then Q) Affirming the antecedent (P) Denying the consequent (not Q) Denying the antecedent (not P) Affirming the consequent (Q)
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Modus Tollens—Denying the Consequent If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side.
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