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Chemical Methods of Controlling Microbial Growth

Chemical Methods of Controlling Microbial Growth -...

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Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment Because certain microorganisms can cause disease, it is important to eliminate them or reduce their numbers. In certain circumstances, the inhibition of microbial growth represents satisfactory control, in other circumstances complete sterilization is necessary. T ERMINOLOGY OF M ICROBIAL C ONTROL S TERILIZATION Killing or removal of all living organisms and viruses from a growth medium. D ISINFECTION Process of eliminating nearly all pathogens, not all microorganisms, from inanimate objects or surfaces. A NTISEPSIS Inhibition/killing of microorganisms on skin or tissue by the use of a chemical. The chemical is called an antiseptic. D EGERMING Removal of microbes from a surface by scrubbing such as when you wash your hands. S ANITIZATION Reduction of a prescribed number of pathogens from surfaces and utensils in public settings. C IDAL AGENT
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Kills the microorganism; a bacteriocidal agent kills bacteria. S TATIC AGENT Inhibits the growth of microorganisms; a bacteriostatic agent inhibits the growth of bacteria Physical Methods of Controlling Microbial Growth I. Heat Related Methods High temperatures denature proteins, disrupt the function and structure of nucleic acids and cause the cytoplasmic membranes to collapse. D IRECT F LAMING Incinerating inoculating loops Flaming pipettes, top of test-tubes Health care workers incinerate disposable hospital gowns and plastic apparatus. Epidemiologists incinerate the carcasses of animals that have diseases such as anthrax or mad cow disease. H OT OVEN Electric oven 160-170ºC for 2 hours Used to sterlize Glassware B OILING Moist heat is more effective than dry heat because water is a better conductor of heat than air.
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