Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body (1)

Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body (1) - Controlling...

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Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body: Antimicrobial Drugs The History of Antimicrobial Agents Paul Ehrlich discovered the first chemotherapeutic agent, arsenical compound effective against syphilis called Salvarsan. The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin by Alexander Fleming released from Penicillium (mold). Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action Antimicrobial drugs can be categorized into several groups according to their mechanisms of action. o Drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis o Drugs that inhibit protein synthesis o Drugs that disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane o Drugs that inhibit general metabolic pathways o Drugs that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis o Drugs that block a pathogen attaching to its host A. I NHIBITION   OF   CELL   WALL   SYNTHESIS Most common agents act by preventing cross-linkage of NAM subunits. Most prominent in this group are beta-lactams such as penicillins and cephalosporins whose functional groups are called beta- lactam (β- lactam) rings. These drugs eventually cause the cell to lyse. Penicillin G is currently the most popular penicillin antibiotic. Other types are penicillin F and penicllin G. There are 2 major drawbacks to the use of penicillin.
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Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body (1) - Controlling...

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