chapt10 - 10 Catabolism: Energy Release and Conservation...

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10 Catabolism: Energy Release and Conservation CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter presents an overview of energy release and conservation mechanisms beginning with glucose degradation to pyruvate. Fermentation, aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration are then examined. The consideration of chemoorganoheterotrophic metabolism concludes with a discussion of the catabolism of lipids, proteins, and amino acids. Chemolithotrophic metabolism follows and the chapter concludes with a discussion of the trapping of energy by phototrophy. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter you should be able to: discuss the difference between catabolism and anabolism describe the various pathways for the catabolism of glucose to pyruvate list the various types of fermentations and give examples of their practical importance discuss the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and its central role in aerobic metabolism describe the electron transport process, and compare and contrast the electron transport systems of eukaryotes with those of prokaryotes describe oxidative phosphorylation and the chemiosmotic hypothesis compare and contrast aerobic respiration, fermentation, and anaerobic respiration of organic molecules describe in general terms the catabolism of molecules other than carbohydrates list the common energy sources used by chemolithotrophs describe the mechanisms by which chemolithoautotrophs generate ATP and NADH discuss the photosynthetic light reactions compare and contrast the light reactions of eukaryotes (and cyanobacteria) with those of green (or purple) photosynthetic bacteria CHAPTER OUTLINE I.Chemoorganotrophic Fueling Processes A. Chemotrophic microorganisms vary in terms of their energy source (light, organic molecules, inorganic molecules), and in terms of their electron acceptors 1. If the energy source is oxidized and degraded with the use of an exogenous electron acceptor, the process is called respiration; in aerobic respiration the final electron acceptor is oxygen, whereas in anaerobic respiration the final electron acceptor is a molecule other than oxygen 2. If an organic energy source is oxidized and degraded without the use of an exogenous electron acceptor, the process is called fermentation B. For chemoorganoheterotrophic organisms, catabolism is often a three-stage process during which nutrients are fed into common degradative pathways including glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle 1. Breakdown of polymers and other large molecules into their constituent parts 2. Initial degradation of the constituents’ parts 3. Completion of degradation accompanied by the generation of many ATP molecules C. Many of the catabolic pathways can also be used for synthesis (anabolic) reactions and are termed amphibolic; reducing power is used to convert precursor metabolites into macromolecules II. Aerobic Respiration - completely catabolizes organic energy sources to carbon dioxide using oxygen as
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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chapt10 - 10 Catabolism: Energy Release and Conservation...

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