Chapter 3 � Water and the Fitness of the Environment

Chapter 3 � Water and the Fitness of the Environment...

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Chapter 3 – Water and the Fitness of the Environment 3.1 The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding Water is the only common substance to exist in the natural environment in all 3 physical states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Water is connected together by single covalent bonds. Because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, the electrons of the covalent bonds spend more time closer to O than H; in other words, they are polar covalent bonds. This unequal distribution of electrons makes water a polar molecule , where the two ends of the molecule has opposite charges. 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s fitness for life The four emergent properties are: cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent. Cohesion Water molecules stay close to each other as a result of hydrogen bonding. These linkages of multiple hydrogen bonds make water more structured than most other liquids. Water is held together by hydrogen bonds, which is also known as cohesion
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Chapter 3 � Water and the Fitness of the Environment...

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