Chapter 4 Supplemental - carbon - component of all...

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carbon - component of all biological molecules molecules w/ carbon can form straight chains, branches, rings hydrocarbons - molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen; energy-rich, makes good fuels (ex. propane gas, gasoline); nonpolar macromolecules - large, complex assemblies of molecules; separated into proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates polymers - long molecules built by linking together smaller chemical subunits dehydration synthesis - takes a -OH group and a H from 2 molecules to create a covalent bond between them, forming water as a byproduct catalysis - positioning and stressing the correct bonds; done by enzymes hydrolysis - adding water to break a covalent bond in a macromolecule functional groups - specific atomic groups added to a hydrocarbon core carbohydrates - molecules w/ carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in ratio 1:2:1 empirical formula - (CH2O)n releases energy from C-H bonds when oxidized sugars - most important energy-storage carbohydrate monosaccharides - simplest of the carbohydrates can contain as few as 3 carbon, but most contain 6 C6H12O6, or (CH2O)6 In the structure of glucose, we can see trademarks of sugar: the molecule has a carbonyl group (either aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. usually forms rings in aqueous environments (but can form chains) glucose - most important energy-storing monosaccaride; has 7 C-H bonds for energy disaccharide - "double sugar" Joined by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides joined by a dehydration reaction. play roles in transporting sugars (so that it is less rapidly used for energy during transport) only special enzymes located at where glucose is to be used can break the bonds normal enzymes along the transport route can't break apart disaccharides
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sucrose - fructose + glucose; used by plants to transport glucose maltose - glucose + glucose polysaccharide - macromolecules made of monosaccharides insoluble long polymers of monosaccharides formed by dehydration synthesis starch - used to store energy; consists of linked glucose molecules cellulose - used for structural material in plants; consists of linked glucose molecules amylose - simplest starch; all glucose connected in unbranched chains amylopectin - plant starch; 1-6 linkages; branches into amylose segments glycogen - animal version of starch; has more branches than plant starch sugar isomers - alternative forms of glucose same empirical formula, but different atomic arrangement fructose - structural isomer of glucose; oxygen attached to internal carbon, not terminal; tastes sweeter than glucose galactose - stereoisomer of glucose; hydroxyl group oriented differently from glucose
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 4 Supplemental - carbon - component of all...

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