Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Overview The...

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Chapter 17 – From Gene to Protein Overview – The Flow of Genetic Information The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis or proteins and of RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis. Proteins are the link between genotype and phenotype. Gene expression – the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins (or, in some cases, just RNAs). The expression of genes that code for proteins includes two stages: transcription and translation. This chapter describes the flow of information from gene to protein in detail and explains how genetic mutations affect organisms through their proteins. 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation Evidence from the Study of Metabolic Defects In 1909, British physician Archibald Garrod was the first to suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell. Garrod claimed that the symptoms of an inherited disease reflect a person’s inability to make a particular enzyme. He referred to such diseases as “inborn errors of metabolism.” Garrod may have been the first person to recognize that Mendel’s principles of heredity apply to humans as well as peas. Garrod’s realization was ahead of its time, but research conducted several decades later
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Overview The...

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