Biology Lecture 9 - The portion without the phosphate group...

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Biology Lecture 9 Be able to draw cellulose, phospholipids, glucose, monomers, etc. for test Alterations in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental factors cause the denaturation of a protein. Renaturation is when the protein returns to its shape again Chaperonins assist in the folding of proteins (they are also proteins) We inherit DNA from our parents. That DNA has genes on it that code for protein. Molecules are very long varying from 100 to 1000 strands of genes It‘s the blueprint for our body and the genes are the ones who tell the proteins what to do DNA goes to mRNA which in turn goes to protein Goes from linear to linear (transcription; occurs in the nucleus) and ends up 3D (polypeptide and also the info is translated to this step; translation occurs in the cytoplasm) Nucleic acid polymers can be called polynucleotides Each polynucleotide is made from monomers called nucleotides Each nucleotide contains a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
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Unformatted text preview: The portion without the phosphate group is called the nucleoside. B Backbone of the DNA is the sugar molecule and phosphate group Two categories of nitrogen bases: Pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil) contain only a single six-membered ring Purines (adenine and quinine) have a six-membered ring fused to five-membered ring Nucleotides are linked by covalent bonds (phosphodiester linkages) Sequence of bases along DNA or mRNA polymer is unique for each gene 5’C is the top of the DNA strand the 3’ is the bottom of the strand DNA molecule is formed by two polynucleotide strands that form a double helix The backbones run in opposite directions from 5’ to 3’. This is called antiparallel Bonds between the opposite bases are hydrogen bonds Nucleotides that are being added are always added at the 3’ end first...
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