Biology Lecture 18 - phosphate groups converting it to cAMP...

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Biology Lecture 18 Steroids and hormones can slip through the plasma membrane Transcription initiates transcription in a certain segment of the DNA The signal takes on different forms as it’s passed from one protein to the next Proteins can change shape when they are phosphorylated Signal Transduction Pathways: Phosphorylation cascade (deals with protein kinases) Second messengers (not proteins) i.cAMP ii. Calcium ions iii. Inositol triphosphate Phosphorylation acts like an on and off switch with the protein kinase Phosphorylation cascade can be triggered by second messengers (cAMP) Second messengers are small, nonprotein, water soluble molecules or ions, spread by diffusion Cyclic AMP is a common second messenger (similar to ATP) Adenylyl cylase, an enzyme in the plasma membrane, takes ATP and removes 2
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Unformatted text preview: phosphate groups converting it to cAMP Signal relayed in signal transduction pathway can trigger an increase in calcium in the cytosol Inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) act as second messengers A signal (and the response) is amplified Can cause different responses with the same signal molecule Same signal for cells can have different effects in cells with different proteins and pathways Energy is the capacity to cause change. Some forms of energy can be used to perform work. Contains various forms including potential (includes chemical energy) and kinetic (includes heat energy; does not have the potential to perform work) Energy is transformed, not created or destroyed...
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Biology Lecture 18 - phosphate groups converting it to cAMP...

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