BioLabWriteUp - Page 1 The Effect of Epinephrine on Average...

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Page 1 The Effect of Epinephrine on Average Pulsation Rate of Lumbriculus Variegates By: Karlo Natonton Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if exposure of epinephrine has an effect on Lumbriculus variegates (blackworms). In order to determine this, we had to observe blackworms underneath a dissecting microscope. We counted the pulsations of one segment of the worm. Then we recorded the average baseline pulsation rates of untreated blackworms, both cut and uncut. Then we compared them to the average pulsation rates of uncut blackworms treated with different concentrations of epinephrine. After completing the experiment, we can conclude that epinephrine does increase the average pulsation rate of blackworms. Introduction: Lumbriculus variegates , commonly known as blackworms, live in shallow water along edges of marshes and ponds, mainly in the United States (Drewes [updated2004]). Rather than reproducing sexually, blackworms reproduce through fragmentation or regeneration (Drewes 2004). Regeneration occurs when a blackworm is cut into fragments and a new head or tail regenerates after being cut, making a new blackworm organism (Drewes [updated 2004]). Worms breathe through their skin in order to gain oxygen and other nutrients (Drewes [updated 2004]). This leads to the worms taking up all the nutrients that they live in. The blood flows through the body mainly by the dorsal blood vessel. The dorsal blood vessel pumps blood throughout the body from the tail to the head (Drewes [updated 2004]). The pulsations can be measured by taking watching the blood travel through a single segment and counting the frequency of pulsation waves per minute (Drewes [updated 2004]). This measures the basal pulsation rate. If a blackworm is placed in an environment containing nutrients, hormones, or chemicals, then the heart rate and pulsation rate will be affected because the body easily allows nutrients to enter the circulatory system. One of the most crucial parts to the entire body of any organism is the circulatory system. The circulatory is responsible for transporting blood/hemolymph, nutrients, oxygen through hemoglobin in the blood, and other essential chemicals that are important for the body. There are two types of circulatory systems. There are open circulatory systems and closed circulatory systems. Vertebrates, and a few invertebrates, have closed circulatory systems (Sakurai 2009). In the closed circulatory system, a heart pumps blood through vessels and does not fill body cavities (Sakurai 2009). The open circulatory system is common to mollusks and arthropods (Sakurai 2009). These organisms with an open circulatory system pump blood to a hemocoel as blood diffuses back to the system between cells (Sakurai 2009). The blood is then pumped into the body cavities by a heart, where tissues are surrounded by the blood (Sakurai 2009). The fluid that is circulated in an open circulatory system is called hemolymph while the fluid in a closed
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BioLabWriteUp - Page 1 The Effect of Epinephrine on Average...

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