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Unformatted text preview: General Psychology
Dr. Terry R. Hartley firstname.lastname@example.org E620
Office hours: 10:40-11:30am Blackboard
• • • • • http://blackboard.boisestate.edu Click the “login” button Username (student ID) Password (student ID) or old password “Login” (your page along with links to your courses) • Click on course For Software Downloads
• On main Bb page, look for: • “Optional plug-in Downloads for Blackboard” • If “PowerPoint Viewer” link is not hot, look in paragraph for “MicroSoft” link Psych 101 Syllabus & Experimetrix information
• http://www.blackboard.boisestate.edu • • • • Click on Psychology 101 Blackboard site. Click on Course Information. Right click document Save document to a file of your choice What is Psychology, and What Are Its Roots?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes, and it has grown out of many, often conflicting, traditions Life Before Psychology
Philosophy asks questions about the mind: Does perception accurately reflect reality? How is sensation turned into perception?
René Descartes (1596-1650) Problem - No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind
SCIENTIFIC METHOD Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions Psychology Is Born
First Experimental Psych Lab (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind. WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorous as the methods of chemistry & physics.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Wundt’s students start labs across USA (1880-1900)
University of Leipzig Harvard University Yale University Columbia University Catholic University Univ of Pennsylvania Cornell University Stanford University Psychology (pre-1920)
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist Founder of Psychology as a Science Experiments Introspection Edward Titchner (1867-1927) Student of Wundt Formed Ψ at Cornell William James (1842-1910) Philosopher & Psychologist Formed Ψ at Harvard Psychology Understanding Mental Processes Structuralism vs Functionalism Structuralism Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences
Wilhelm Wundt Functionalism
Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings)
William James (1842-1910) Behaviorism
Scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior. Psych
John Watson (1878-1958) the Science of Behavior Mental Processes cannot be studied directly Stimulus Response Psychology
Ivan Psychology (1920s-1960s)
Psychology Science of Observable Behavior John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behavior without Reference to Thought The RAT & S-R Psychology B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behaviorism with a Twist The PIDGEON & The Skinner Box Gestalt Psychology
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession. A reaction against Behaviorism An attempt to focus attention back onto conscious experience (i.e., the mind) Phi Phenomenon WHY? W HY? Freud & Psychoanalysis
Proposes the idea of the UNCONSCI OUS
Thoughts, memories & desires exist below conscious awareness and exert an influence on our behavior
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Unconscious expressed in dreams & “slips of the tongue” Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain personality, mental disorders & motivation in terms of unconscious determinants of behavior Cognitive Psychology
Cognition the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, storing & using information Cognitive Psychologists return to the study of learning, memory, perception, language, development & problem solving
Noam Chomsky “Language” Advent of computers (late 1950s) provides a new model for thinking about the mind Women of Psychology
Harvard but was not awarded a Ph.D. Founded psych lab at Wellesley College (1891) Mary Calkins - student of William James at Ph.D. in Psychology. Wrote The Animal Mind, which helped begin the Behaviorist movement. Margaret Washburn - first woman to receive Karen Horney – Disputed Freud’s concept of penis
envy & wrote about the neurotic personality. What are the Perspectives Psychologists Use Today?
Seven main perspectives characterize modern psychology: the biological, developmental, cognitive, clinical, behavioral, trait, and socio-cultural views Seven Modern Perspectives of Psychology
Biological Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View We are complex systems We that respond to hereditary and environmental influences influences
What Determines Behavior: Neural structures, Neural biochemistry, and innate responses to external cues responses
Focus of Study: Nervous and endocrine Nervous systems, evolutionary advantages of behaviors advantages Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View People undergo People predictable patterns of change throughout their lives lives
What Determines Behavior: Interaction between Interaction heredity and environment environment
Focus of Study: Patterns of developmental Patterns change and their underlying influences underlying Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View We are informationprocessing systems
What Determines Behavior: Interpretation of Interpretation experience by means of mental processing mental
Focus of Study: Mental processes, Mental including sensation, perception, learning, memory, and language memory, Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View We are driven by We unconscious motives unconscious
What Determines Behavior: Psychodynamic view stresses unconscious conflicts unconscious Humanistic view focuses on self-concept and need for personal growth personal
Focus of Study: Counseling and Counseling psychotherapy psychotherapy Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View We respond to surroundings We according to principles of behavioral learning behavioral
What Determines Behavior: Stimulus cues, history of Stimulus rewards and punishments rewards
Focus of Study: “Laws” connecting our Laws” responses to stimulus conditions in the environment conditions Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View Individual differences result Individual from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics characteristics
What Determines Behavior: Each person’s unique Each combination of traits
Focus of Study: Focus Fundamental traits, Using trait Fundamental patterns to predict behavior patterns Perspective
Biological Developmental Cognitive Clinical Behavioral Trait Sociocultural View of Human Nature: View We are social animals; We human behavior must be interpreted in social context interpreted
What Determines Behavior: Cultures, social norms and Cultures, expectations, social learning
Focus of Study: Focus Social interaction, Social socialization, cross-cultural differences differences What Do Psychologists Do?
Psychology is a broad field with many specialties, grouped in two major categories: experimental psychology and applied psychology What Do Psychologists Do?
• Conduct most research across psychological spectrum • Often teach at college or university • May work in private industry or for the government What Do Psychologists Do?
• Use knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems Clinical I/O School Counseling Engineering Rehabilitation What Do Psychologists Do?
• Other social sciences also study human behavior and mental processes Sociology Psychiatry Anthropology Psychoanalysis ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Hartley during the Fall '05 term at Boise State.
- Fall '05