Ch1_ScienceA - How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge...

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How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? Psychologists, like researchers in all other sciences, use the scientific method to test their ideas empirically
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Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudoscience Pseudoscience – Any approach to explaining phenomena in the natural world that does not use empirical observation or the scientific method (e.g. Astrology, palmistry, psychics, etc.) How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge?
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The Scientific Attitude Critical Thinking 101 1. Do not blindly accept arguments or conclusions. 2. Examine all assumptions (implicit & explicit) 3. Evaluate evidence (objective?) 4. Are the conclusions supported? “What do they mean?” “How do they know that?”
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Psychologists must be skeptical and think critically What is the evidence? How was it collected? Psychology is Empirical Psych conclusions based on research Psych conclusions based on research NOT tradition or common sense NOT tradition or common sense Knowledge acquired through observation
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Empirical investigation An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and observation as research data How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? Scientific method A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis under conditions designed to control biases and subjective judgments
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The Five Steps of the Scientific Method Developing a hypothesis Developing a hypothesis Performing a controlled test Performing a controlled test Gathering objective data Gathering objective data Analyzing the results Analyzing the results Publishing, criticizing, and Publishing, criticizing, and replicating the results replicating the results
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Developing a Developing a hypothesis hypothesis Performing a controlled test Gathering objective data Analyzing the results Publishing, criticizing, and replicating the results Hypothesis – A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study Operational definitions – Exact procedures used in establishing experimental conditions and measurement of results The Five Steps of the Scientific Method
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Developing a hypothesis Performing a Performing a
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