497A Lecture 1

497A Lecture 1 - 12/28/10 The Evolution of Infectious...

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12/28/10 1 The Evolution of Infectious Disease (BIOL 497A) Eddie Holmes The Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University Charles Darwin (February 12th 1809 - April 19th 1882) On the Origin of Species (published 24th November 1859) History of Virology Jenner starts vaccination: 1798 Many viruses discovered: 1920s-30s Vector of yellow fever found: 1900 Viruses discovered: 1898 Global influenza pandemic: 1918 Pasteur makes rabies vaccine: 1885 History of ‘Darwinism’ 1900: Mendel’s work rediscovered 1809: Darwin born 1920s-30s: Neo-Darwinian synthesis 1859: ‘On the Origin of Species’ 1871: ‘Descent of Man’ 1882: Darwin dies 1831-1836: Voyage of ‘The Beagle’ Yellow Fever
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12/28/10 2 Evolutionary History of Yellow Fever Virus • Strong correspondence between the timing and direction of the spread of yellow fever virus and the slave trade from West Africa • Emerging diseases and where they come from • The evolutionary biology of viruses (especially RNA viruses) • The evolutionary biology of bacteria • Special topics: the evolution of selected eukaryotic pathogens (e.g. Plasmodium malaria, trypanosomes) Course Overview Shameless Self-Publicity Amazon Sales Rank: #276,952 in Books
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12/28/10 3 Louis Pasteur Robert Koch Joseph Lister The “Germ” Theory of Disease The Decline of Tuberculosis The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance • Of the 110 million courses of antibiotics prescribed in the USA in 1992, >50% were unnecessary because the ailments were caused by respiratory viruses!
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12/28/10 4 Decline in Infectious Disease Mortality in the Developed World Decline in Measles Mortality in USA • Globally, however, measles still causes 42 million cases annually, with 1 million deaths • Influenza continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality each year (36,000 deaths per year in the US) Much Higher Mortality by Influenza
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12/28/10 5 Where do Epidemics Come From? Other Animal Species (“zoonoses”) The Black Death (Plague) (killed ~25 million people in Europe from 1347) Eyam, Derbyshire 17 th Century plague epidemic
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12/28/10 6 Plague Bacterium (Yersina Pestis) Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Rat Flea ( Xenopsylla cheopis ) Plague Transmission Cycle Alexander Yersin Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) The SARS Epidemic (infected 8437 and killed >811 people in 2003)
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12/28/10 7 The Animal Reservoir of SARS Coronavirus Himalayan Palm civet ( Paguma larvata ) “Spill-over” Host Natural Host Horseshoe Bats ( Rhinolophus sp. ) “Emerging” Viruses V i r u s D i s e a s e D i s t r i b u t i o n N a t u r a l H o s t I n f l u e n z a R e s p i r a t o r y W o r l d w i d e F o w l ( & p i g s ) H a n t a a n H a e m o r r h a g i c F e v e r A s i a , E u r o p e , U S R o d e n t s R i f t V a l l e y F e v e r * F e v e r A f r i c a M o s q u i t o , u n g u l a t e s O r o p o u c h e * F e v e r L a t i n A m e r i c a M i d g e O ’ n y o n g - n y o n g *
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497A Lecture 1 - 12/28/10 The Evolution of Infectious...

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