Lecture20 - 4/4/11 Lecture 20 The Epidemiology & Evolution...

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4/4/11 1 Lecture 20 Eyam, Derbyshire, UK The Black Death (Killed ~25 million people in Europe from 1347)
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4/4/11 2 Infamous Plague Outbreaks (1) Justinian’s Plague: 540-590. Started in Egypt, then spread to Europe and Asia. Killed 50% to 60% of population (2) Black Death: 1346-1400. Europe, killed 33% of European population (20 to 30 million people). - Plague continued in Europe throughout the middle ages to until the Great Plague of London in 1665. Peak mortality of 7,000/week. Total mortality 1/5 th of pop. (3) Asian Pandemic: 1855. China, then all inhabited continents, killed more than 12 million people in India and China (continues today in Africa and Asia). - San Francisco: 1900. - Last U.S. Outbreak: 1924. Los Angeles. 32 pneumonic cases, 31 deaths The Plague of Athens? (430-427/425 B.C: “The Thucydides Syndrome”) “abrupt onset, persons in good health were seized first with strong fevers, redness and burning of the eyes, and the inside of the mouth, both the throat and tongue, immediately was bloody-looking and expelled an unusually foul breath”
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4/4/11 3 Plague Bacterium (Yersina Pestis) Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Rat Flea ( Xenopsylla cheopis ) Plague Transmission Cycle Alexander Yersin Family Enterobacteriaceae (two other species are Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica ) Y. pestis was likely to have been an enteric bacterium that evolved into a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen Gram negative coccobacillus Aerobic, facultatively anaerobic Facultative intracellular pathogen Survival: – Briefly in soil – Soft tissue ~1 week – Frozen - years Yersinia pestis Life-Cycle of Plague in Humans
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4/4/11 4 Human Plague Symptoms Flu-like symptoms after incubation time of 3 - 7 days Clinical manifestation dependent on route of infection: Bubonic: Most common form; transmitted by fleas. Acute onset of fever and painful swollen lymph
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2011 for the course BIOL 497A taught by Professor Eddieholmes during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Lecture20 - 4/4/11 Lecture 20 The Epidemiology & Evolution...

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