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SHAMBHAVI GUPTA / FINAL EXAM HIS 146B1.ETA: Red BrigadesEuskadi Ta Askatasuna:-an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separtist organization that usedterrorism in its campaign for an independent Basque state.It was started in 1959 primarily from Spain. Between then and 2010 they killed 829 people through bombings assasination, and kidnappings in the Southern Basque country and throughout spanish territoryRed Brigades:-It’s a far left terrorist group organization. It was responsible for numerous violent incidents including assasinations such as the murder of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro. Wanted to remove Italy from NATO. The organization was based in Italy from 1970-1988. Term relation -Both are terrorist groups that rose during Fascism. ETA grew out of Basque Nationalist Party, which was founded in 1894 and which managed to survive, though illegally, under the fascist regime ofFrancisco Francoby maintaining its headquarters in exile in Paris and keeping quietly out of sight in Spain. Red Brigades self-proclaimed aim was to undermine the Italian state and pave the way for a Marxist upheaval led by a “revolutionaryproletariat” Eta was for fascism and Red Brigades against fascism.Broader Trend –Rise in terrorism in Europe.In the years immediately following World War II, Europe saw the emergence of far-left (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist) and far-right (neo-fascist) terror groups. From 1960s to 1990s terrorist attacks in Europe became pretty common. Terrorist groups like Irish Republican Army from Ireland or Spain’s ETA or Italy’s Years of Lead group organized bombings in their countries killing thousands of people. The nature of terrorism experienced a shift in the 1960s with the emergence of secular, nationalist Palestinian terror groups in Europe, including the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Abu Nidal Organization. The responses of European authorities to Palestinian terror didn’t cause a dent in the attacks on Europe and increased profile of Palestinian terror groups. Europe was the only region to experience so much of Middle Eastern terrorism outside of Middle East in the 1990s.
2.Gregor Gysi: PDSGregor Gysi :-German attorney, president of the party of the European left since 2016, and a prominent politician to the left political party. He was the last leader of the socialist unity party of Germany who led the effort that transformed it into the post-communist party of democratic socialism.PDS :- The Party of Democratic Socialism was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007. It was the legal successor to the Socialist UnityParty of Germany (SED), which ruled the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) as a state party until 1990. From 1990 through to 2005, the PDS had been seen as the left-wing "party of the East".