Exam #2 Notes - Chapter 4: Verbal Communication I....

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Chapter 4: Verbal Communication I. Principles of verbal communication a. Words are symbols that represent reality i. We rely on symbols to represent objects and thoughts ii. Remember the language triangle 1. Thought 2. Referent 3. Symbol iii. George Carlin clip – football v. baseball b. Words are arbitrary i. There is no intrinsic connection between the referent and the symbol ii. Wikiality 1. Stephen Colbert 2. We have enough people to agree that a word means something, thus it becomes reality. c. Words have denotative and connotative meanings i. Denotative- Dictionary definition ii. Connotative- personal subjective meaning. Emerge from personal experience. The more categories and schema, the more connotations of things we have. d. Meanings are in people, not words i. The word itself, intrinsically, means nothing. The meaning comes from the person who says the word ii. Meaning is how individuals interpret information 1. We see that language is both ambiguous and subjective. 2. Ambiguous- the meaning for words is not all unified. Even though there’s a direct definition, there’s still some flexibility 3. Subjective- We have different interactions with different people, those interactions affect our subjectivity. e. Words are contextually bound i. Meaning comes from the situation they are used ii. Example: rowing terms. f. Words are culturally bound i. They vary based on the relationships between people ii. English vs. English g. Words communicate concrete or abstract meaning i. There’s a continuum of abstractness or concreteness: 1. Nourishment, food, meat, beef, ground beef, McDonald’s ii. Concrete: can experience the referent with one of our five senses (the more concrete our language is, the less miscommunication there will be 1. Referent- The object [we’re referring to] 2. Able to experience it without touching it, engaging with it
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iii. Abstract: one cannot experience referent with our five senses (the more abstract our language is, the less miscommunication will be… More perceptions of what abstract language can be interpreted as) h. Communication is rule based i. Regulative rules- Guide when, how, and where to communicate ii. Constitutive rules- what a process of communication means or stands for. 1. Are you conveying respect? Anger? 2. Gossiping about a friend. Broken constitutive rules include trust, respect for privacy II. Words are powerful a. Words create our reality. i. Defines: 1. Tells others how to think or feel about something 2. Loaded language- Encourages extreme perceptions. Example: “Obamacare” 3. Reappropriation- A group: reclaiming previously degrading as a process of liberating it from its negative connotation a. Bitch: i. Female dog ii. She’s a tough bitch, you’re one of my bitches (term of endearment) iii. What a bitch (negative) ii. Evaluates: 1. Language is not neutral. iii. Organizes
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Exam #2 Notes - Chapter 4: Verbal Communication I....

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