CarbohydratesI - Carbohydrates 1 Daniel Palleros...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Carbohydrates 1 Daniel Palleros Carbohydrates 1. Making Rings with Sugars 2. Haworth Projections 3. Going from the Fischer to the Haworth Projection 4. Going from the Haworth Projection to the Chair Conformation 5. Definition of α and β Anomers 6. Chair Conformations 7. Drawing Furanose Rings 8. Rotating Sugars 9. The Anomeric Effect 10. The Many Forms of Sugars 11. L sugars 12. Epimerization and Isomerization of Sugars 13. Other Important Carbohydrates 14. Biological Glycosides 14.1 Alcoholic glycosides 14.2 Phenolic glycosides 14.3 Coumarin glycosides 14.4 Cyanogenic glycosides 14.5 Cardiac glycosides 14.6 Flavonoid glycosides 14.7 Saponins 15. N-glycosides 16. Shorthand Notation of Sugars Additional Problems Answers to Additional Problems Carbohydrates 2 Daniel Palleros Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are essential biomolecules that provide the fuel that makes life possible. They are also the building blocks of structural elements such as the cell wall of bacteria and the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans. Carbohydrates are also used by Nature to increase the solubility of other biomolecules that get attached to them. This increase in solubility facilitates their transport and excretion in the organism. You will encounter carbohydrates repeatedly in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. The goal of this chapter is to provide you with a deeper understanding of these important compounds. When we are finished, you should be able to take any monosaccharide and draw it with ease in the Fischer and Haworth projections, chair conformations, furanose and pyranose forms and view it from different perspectives. You will also get familiar with some biological aspects of their chemistry, including isomerization reactions, biological glycosides and N-glycosides. To get started, you should first review the following concepts discussed in Chemistry 108B: aldoses, ketoses, pentoses, hexoses, Fischer projection, chair conformations, sugar tree (conformation of aldohexoses), D and L sugars, anomers, pyranoses, furanoses, hemiacetals and glycosidic bonds (sections 25.1-25.6 in McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th ed.) You should then proceed to the supplemental material discussed here (sections 1-16). The following sections in McMurry’s Organic Chemistry (7 th ed.) must also be read: 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides 25.8 Disaccharides 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates Carbohydrates 3 Daniel Palleros 1. Making Rings with Sugars When one molecule of an alcohol reacts with one molecule of an aldehyde or a ketone, a hemiacetal is formed. The reaction is reversible and usually (but not always) requires the addition of an acid catalyst, HA. Under normal conditions the equilibrium is shifted toward reactants....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 05/03/2011 for the course CHEM 8902 taught by Professor Lewis during the Spring '11 term at LSU Alexandria.

Page1 / 16

CarbohydratesI - Carbohydrates 1 Daniel Palleros...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online