Section 1-Innate Protection

Section 1-Innate Protection - 1 Human Defense Mechanisms...

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1 Human Defense Mechanisms Innate and Acquired Immunity There are two types of human defense: innate resistance, which includes natural barriers, the inflammatory response, and the adaptive (acquired) immune system. Components of Innate Immunity Cellular (Total WBCs 4500-11,000/microliter) Granulocytes Neutrophils 1800-7800 (50-70%) Eosinophils 0-450 (0-10%) Basophils 0-200 (0-2%) Agranulocytes Monocytes 0-800 (0- 8%) (Resident Macrophages) Natural Killer Cells (NKs) *Note Lymphoid in origin Humoral (Soluble Factors) Complement Interferon Lysozyme Components of Acquired Immunity Cellular Agranulocytes Lymphocytes 1000-4800 (15-45%) T-Cells T-Helper Cells T-Cytotoxic Cells T-Suppressor Cells B-Cells Humoral Immunoglobulins First Line of Defense: Physical, Mechanical, and Biochemical Barriers 1. Physical and mechanical barriers are the first lines of defense that prevent damage to the individual and prevent invasion by pathogens; these include the skin and mucous membranes. 2. Antibacterial peptides in mucous secretions, perspiration, saliva, tears, and other secretions that provide biochemical barriers against pathogenic
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microorganisms. 3. The normal bacterial flora provides protection by releasing chemicals that prevent colonization by pathogenic organisms. Second Line of Defense: Inflammation Innate Response 1. Inflammation is a rapid and nonspecific protective response to cellular injury from any cause. It can occur only in vascular tissue. 2. The macroscopic hallmarks of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function of the inflamed tissues. 3. The microscopic hallmark of inflammation is an accumulation of fluid and cells at the inflammatory site. Innate Recognition Pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPS Unlike adaptive immunity, innate immunity does not recognize every possible antigen. Instead, it is designed to recognize molecules shared by groups of related microbes that are essential for the survival of those organisms and are not found associated with mammalian cells. Examples: LPS from the gram-negative cell wall (endotoxin), peptidoglycan and lipotechoic acids from the gram-positive cell walls Mannose (a terminal sugar common in microbial glycolipids and glycoproteins Bacterial and viral DNA Bacterial flagellin Amino acid N-formylmethionine found in bacterial proteins Double-stranded and single-stranded RNA from viruses, Glucans from fungal cell walls. Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin is invariably associated with Gram-negative bacteria whether the organisms are pathogenic or not. Endotoxin is the lipopolysaccharide complex associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli , Salmonella , Shigella , Pseudomonas , Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae , Bordetella pertussis and Vibrio cholerae . Peptidoglycan
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2011 for the course PATH 1 taught by Professor Tay during the Spring '11 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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Section 1-Innate Protection - 1 Human Defense Mechanisms...

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