Specific or Acquired Immunity2

Specific or Acquired Immunity2 - 1 Specific or Acquired...

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1 Specific or Acquired Immunity Innate Review Types of immunity. Immunity may be broadly classified as innate or acquired. Innate immunity is present from birth. It consists of numerous types of nonspecific factors that operate during times of disease. Acquired immunity is derived from activity of the immune system. The term generally refers to antibodies and is subdivided into two parts: active immunity and passive immunity. Active immunity is acquired when the body produces antibodies. The immunity is usually long lasting because the immune system has been stimulated into action and memory cells have been created. However, it takes several days to develop. Active immunity can be natural or artificial. Naturally acquired active immunity develops when a person produces antibodies during a bout of illness or on exposure to a microorganism even though disease does not occur. The B-lymphocytes and plasma cells function, and this immunity occurs during the “natural” scheme of events (exposure to a pathogen).
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2 Active immunity can also occur by artificial means. Artificially acquired active immunity occurs when a person produces antibodies after exposure to a vaccine. A vaccine consists of bacteria, viruses, or fragments of these. A vaccine may also contain toxoids, which are chemically treated bacterial toxins. Toxoid vaccines are available against diphtheria and tetanus. Viral vaccines are available against measles, mumps, rubella, polio, rabies, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and yellow fever. Because vaccine exposures do not happen in the natural scheme of events, the immunity is said to be artificial. Passive immunity comes about when the body receives antibodies from an outside source. In passive immunity, the immune system does not operate and the immunity is not long lasting. However, it protects instantaneously. Passive immunity can be either natural or artificial. Naturally acquired passive immunity develops when antibodies pass from mother to child across the placental lining. The neonate is born with maternal IgG through trans-placental transfer, and it receives maternal IgA if it is breast-fed. These antibodies will remain for approximately six months after birth before fading away. For artificially acquired passive immunity , a person
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3 is given an injection of antibodies. Usually these antibodies are derived from the blood of another individual who has produced antibodies when confronted with a certain disease. The antibody injected is usually IgG. The antibodies will remain for a period of several days or weeks and then disappear. This is a critical component of Rabies treatment. This type of immunity is given to protect people who have been exposed to tetanus, diphtheria, or botulism. It is also used to protect against certain serious viral diseases. Allergic reactions to the serum proteins (serum sickness) limit the use of the preparations.
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