test 1 outline - Immunology, Exam 1 Human Defense...

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1 Immunology, Exam 1 Components/Molecules of Innate & Acquired Immunity First Line of Defense Second Line of Defense
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2 There are 2 types of human defense: innate resistance (which includes natural barriers ex. Inflammatory response) and adaptive/acquired immunity. Immune responses must communicate they need signal molecules and subsequent receptors Components of Innate & Acquired Immunity Components of Innate Immunity Note: Don t need to know exact numbers for granulocytes just that we rely heavily on neutrophils! Monocytes are resident macrophages circulating immature macrophages (mature macrophages exist outside the vasculature). Lysozymes break down polysaccharides // found in egg white // seen across many species Granulocytes Agranulocytes Humoral Neutrophils 1800-7800 (50-70%) Eosinophils 0-450 (0-10%) Basophils 0-200 (0-2%) Monocytes 0-800 (0-8%) Natural Killer Cells/NKs Lymphoid in origin Complement Interferon Lysozyme Components of Acquired Immunity Note: 1% dependent on condition (in contrast to neutrophils each specific T-cell is relatively low) Cellular Humoral Agranulocytes Lymphocytes 1000-4800 (15-45%) T-Cells B-Cells T-Helper Cells T-Cytotoxic Cells T-Suppressor Cells Immunoglobulins First Line of Defense: Physical, Mechanical and Biochemical Barriers If the organism can t penetrate it s not a pathogen. Physical and mechanical barriers: are the first lines of defense that prevent 1. damage to the individual 2. invasion of pathogens examples 1. skin & mucous membranes Biochemical barrier examples in lungs, Gi tract and skin: antibacterial peptides in mucous secretions (lysozymes) perspiration pH (intestine alkaline, stomach acidic) saliva (protects mouth) mucociliary system tears bacterial flora (release chemicals that prevent colonization by pathogens) other secretions
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3 Second Line of Defense: Inflammation All circulating cells are from the bone marrow which poses a problem injury can occur outside the vascular compartment and they cant be fought a solution macrophages can act as sentinels/leave vascular compartment. Inflammation allows cells to get to the damaged area. Inflammation involves lots of communication. . Inflammation is designed to respond to tissue injury quickly and them terminate. Prolonged/chronic inflammation becomes a source of tissue injury that may exceed the injurious potential of the initiating event Innate Response Inflammation is a rapid and nonspecific protective response to cellular injury (inflammation trigger) from any cause. It can occur only in vascular tissue. The macroscopic hallmarks of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, pain and loss of function of the inflamed tissues.
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2011 for the course PATH 1 taught by Professor Tay during the Spring '11 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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test 1 outline - Immunology, Exam 1 Human Defense...

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