Ch 12 outline

Ch 12 outline - Page 1 of 10 SOC 352 Outline for Chapter 12...

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Page 1 of 10 SOC 352 – Outline for Chapter 12 American vs. Senegal – developed vs. developing Peanut Reference- PG. 292 Developed world- Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand Developing world “third world countires” – South Asia, Latin and Central America, Africa, and the Middle East. Putting it away another way, the developed world comprises the nations of the Northern Hemisphere, while the developing nations are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. (PG. 293) Third World Countries ( Pg. 293) Politcally independent for centries (Ethiopoia, Brazil, China) Development: most definitions o fdevelopment are ethnocentric- cast in terms of the cultural orientations of “the West.” Development typically means a general and less ethnocentric social change process. Like industrialization, it mean growth in the material baed of the society (in production, consumption, and per captia income), but not necessarily a short to ture can be highly developed. (p295) Has both object and normative dimensions… o Modernization- “Westernization” – the diffusion of Western and European social, economic, and cultural forms of the non-Western world. o Industrialization- is a narrower term than modernization, with four primary dimensions 4 listed on PG. 294 Liberal vs. Conservative Views of Development: Conservatives define development as: as economic growth. Development as “intensive growth,” in which the capactity to produce rises faster than population increases, as opposed to “extensive growth,” where economic growth is absorbed by population growth and no per capita increase in incomes is possible. Liberals define development as: successful development involves growth with relative equity, so that the fruit of development are widely shared. British example Pg. 295
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Page 2 of 10 Development efforts have not always been successful. In countries such as Nigeria, West Africa, and Sudan pg. 296 What the Research Indicates: PG. 296 Based on data collected by the United Nations: Rates of development – Widening disparities between nations – Aspects of development, e.g. education, longevity, health conditions – Three important parts: Rates of development vary historically and generally flow the economic conditions of the world economy. Widening disparties in economic performance are creating two worlds, ever more polarized. We illustrated this phenonmenon earlier with the lives of Senegalse and American peanut famrs. And the extremes of inequality are indeed phenomenal. The world’s 500 richest people have a combined income greater than the poorest 400 million people, and some 54% of the world’s population (~3 billion people) live on less than $2.50 a day Some aspects of development (for example, education, longevity, health conditions, political environments) don’t vary precisely with economic conditions. Some richer countries are worse off than they should be, and some poorer countries are better off than they should be at given levels of economic performace. (United Nations Development Program 2002)
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Ch 12 outline - Page 1 of 10 SOC 352 Outline for Chapter 12...

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