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biol1201exam2 - Enzymes 7 questions Function of enzymes How...

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Enzymes 7 questions Function of enzymes How they work o Enzymes Protein catalysts Not used up Specific reactions require specific enzymes Enzymes  lower activation energy barrier Enzymes  speed up reaction 10 ^8th - 10^20th times faster Do not reverse an energetically unfavorable reaction Coenzymes 1. Cofactors/ Coenzymes o NAD (oxidized form) o NADH (reduced form) o NADP (oxidized form) - phosphorolized from of NAD o NADPH ( reduced form) o FAD (oxidized form) o FADH2 (reduced form)   2. Another control Problem o Some processes  require  energy and "reducing power" o Some  produce  energy and "reducing power" o Some  break down  biological molecules o Some  build  biological molecules   3. Spatial Separation o Separate processes which are conflicting ( going in opposite directions) Ex: in organelles  ; fig 8.22  4. Mitochondria o Site of cell respiration o Produce energy in the for of ATP o Use O2 (oxygen) 5. Lysosomes o Isolate digestive enzymes from the proteins in the cytoplasm 1
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Inhibition (Figures 8.17, 8.19, 8.20 and 8.22) 2
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Competitive, Noncompetitive, Allosteric, Feedback Circe Effect Main Points o ATP is termed the energy currency of the cell We can express compounds in terms of their biosynthetic cost in ATP Metabolites an be expressed in terms of ATP Equivalents o The conditions for ATP production and utilization are different, and must be  controlled o By using ATP coupling, processes can have thermodynamic feasibility in the  appropriate direction   How are substrates lured into the active site? o It’s the  positively charged arginine lures protein into active site Circe-        4
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o Circe was an enchantress of Greek mythology o Lured Odysseus and his men with their siren song o Turned odysseus companions into pigs CIRCE EFFECT "substrates get lured into active site, and get turned into products, instead of  pigs" Lure the substrate into the active site Positively charged arginine sidechain  (R group of arginine has  positive charge) of  lures the negatively charged metabolite into the  active site Substrate turned into product   Enzymes are affected by their environment o  by Temperature (reaction rate doubles with every 10 °  temperature  increase) o Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) o Solutes ( the molecules that are dissolved where enzymes are acting) o Hydrostatic pressure o These environmental factors can alter enzymes functional properties o Denaturation (non functional protein because its unfolded - not in proper 3d  shape)- occurs at extremes of these environmental  conditions When temperatures get to high proteins will denature    What sets upper limit temperature for life ?
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