PSC 130 M1 - Why study memory? 1. improve memory...

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Why study memory? 1. improve memory performance 2. societal implications (understand limitations) 3. understand and treat memory disorders 4. understand complex human behavior how is memory studied? 1. behavioral studies 2. neuropsychological studies 3. neuroimaging studies early models of memory: 1. the classical model 2. the modal model 3. the james model short term memory 1. capacity: a. lists of digits, letters, words (study) b. (test) recall items I the correct order c. Accurate recall of 7 +/- 2 items 2. duration: a. several seconds 3. type of info held: a. phonological info 4. increasing STM Capacity: a. chunking 5. distinction btwn STM and LTM? a. Ockham’s Razor: the principle of parsimony. Select the simpler model. b. A dissociation would provide evidence for a real distinction (i.e. a variable has different effects on two different tasks or processes). The serial position curve Why is there a primacy effect: 1. more rehearsal for the primacy items. Primacy may be related to the extra rehearsals that the first items in the list receive. Dissociating STM and LTM: 1. increase study time a. influences LTM portion of the curve but leaves the STM portion unaffected. b. study time dissociates STM and LTM 2. introduce a delay btwn study and test a. influences STM but leaves LTM portion of curve unaffected. b. Delay dissociates STM and LTM 3. Neuropsychological dissociations btwn STM and LTM: 1. Patient HM, deficit in LTM, normal digit span (STM), dissociate LTM from STM. 2. patient KF had damage to left parietal lobe. a. Digit span of 1-2 items. Normal on LTM tasks b. Disrupted STM with intact LTM c. Amnesia: 1. patients exhibiting a long term memory impairment in the absence of other cognitive deficits. (eg. IQ-MQ difference of more than 20 pts) serial position effects in free recall in amnesics and controls: 1. amnesics had reduced a LTM component, but normal STM component 2. dissociation of LTM and STM 3. LTM, but not STM, relies on MTL Clive Wearing: a herpes encephalitis patient A challenge to the dual store interpretation of the serial position dissociations: 1. long term recency effects have been reported that cant reflect STM (i.e. the delay is just too long). a. E.g. rugby player’s recall of teams they have played shows a recency effect. This recency effect cant be due to STM. 2. a continuous distractor (CD) paradigm: number counting for 10 seconds after each study word, followed by free recall. Recency effects are observed in the CD task, these recency effects cant be due to STM. Single store models of serial position effects: 1. all recency effects are due to a general property of LTM (parsimony argument) 2. due to contextual drift e.g. recent items are associated with a context that is more similar to the retrieval context. 3.
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PSC 130 M1 - Why study memory? 1. improve memory...

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