ch 03_Lectures - 2011

ch 03_Lectures - 2011 - BIOL 100.03 General Biology Dr....

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1 BIOL 100.03 – General Biology Dr. Jean Boal Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life
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2 Chapter 2 - Review Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Hydrogen bonds Chemical reactions
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3 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life Organic Compounds – Carbon Functional Groups Macromolecules types
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4 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life Organic Compounds – Carbon Functional Groups Macromolecules types
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5 Carbon Life's molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon Organic compounds have least one carbon atom
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6 Covalent bonding complex structures A carbon atom has four electrons in its outer shell To complete the shell, it can form four covalent bonds
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7 Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model Methane The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron.
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8 Ethane Propane Carbon skeletons vary in length.
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9 Butane Isobutane Skeletons may be unbranched or branched.
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10 1-Butene 2-Butene Skeletons may have double bonds, which can vary in location.
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11 Skeletons may be arranged in rings. Cyclohexane Benzene Shortcut diagrams:
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12 Hydrocarbons are composed of only hydrogen and carbon A series of covalently bonded carbons forms the carbon skeleton of the molecule Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
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13 http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/sci/ibbio/chem/notes/chpt3/isomer.gif Structural Isomer Stereoisomer C 6 H 12 O 6
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14 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life Organic Compounds – Carbon Functional Groups Macromolecules types
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15 Functional groups groups of atoms attached to the carbon skeleton usually participate in chemical reactions give organic molecules their particular properties
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16 Estradiol Female lion Male lion Testosterone
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17 Five main functional groups are important in the chemistry of life: Hydroxyl group (-OH) Carbonyl group (C=O) Carboxyl group (COOH) Amino group (NH 2 ) Phosphate group (OPO 3 2- ) These groups are all polar and make compounds containing them hydrophilic (water-loving)
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18 Note the exposed oxygen polar
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19 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life Organic Compounds – Carbon Functional Groups Macromolecules types
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20 Cells make most of their large molecules by joining
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ch 03_Lectures - 2011 - BIOL 100.03 General Biology Dr....

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