ch 05_Lectures_PPT - jgb

ch 05_Lectures_PPT - jgb - BIOL 100 General Biology Chapter...

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1 BIOL 100 – General Biology Chapter 5 – The Working Cell Dr. J.G. Boal
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2 Chapter 5 – The Working Cell Energy – Introduction ATP Enzymes Membranes - Introduction Crossing Membranes
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3 5.1 Energy is the capacity to perform work Life depends on the fact that energy can be converted from one form to another Kinetic energy is the energy of motion Heat and light are forms of kinetic energy Potential energy is stored energy that is dependent on an object's location or structure The most important potential energy for living things is the chemical energy stored in molecules Potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy
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Kinetic Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Energy
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5 5.2 Two laws govern energy transformations Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations The First Law of Thermodynamics: conservation Energy can be changed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed The Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy transformations increase disorder, or entropy , and some energy is lost as heat
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LE 5-2b Heat Glucose Oxygen Chemical reactions ATP ATP Energy for cellular work Carbon dioxide Water Note : current research related to global warming
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7 5.3 Chemical reactions either store or release energy Endergonic reactions Require an input of energy from the surroundings Yield products rich in potential energy Example: photosynthesis
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LE 5-3a Reactants Products Amount of energy required Potential energy of molecules Energy required
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9 Exergonic reactions Release energy Yield products that contain less potential energy than their reactants Examples: cellular respiration , burning
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LE 5-3b Energy released Potential energy of molecules Reactants Products Amount of energy released
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11 Cells carry out thousands of chemical reactions, which constitute cellular metabolism Energy coupling uses energy released from exergonic reactions to drive endergonic reactions $
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12 Questions on Energy?
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13 Energy - ATP
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14 5.4 ATP shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) powers nearly all forms of cellular work ATP is composed of one adenine, one ribose, and three negatively charged phosphates The energy in an ATP molecule lies in the bonds between its phosphate groups
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LE 5-4a Adenosine Triphosphate Phosphate group P P P H 2 O Hydrolysis ATP ADP Ribose Adenine Adenosine diphosphate P P P Energy + + Energy is stored in chemical bonds.
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16 ATP powers cellular work through coupled reactions The bonds connecting the phosphate groups are broken by hydrolysis , an exergonic reaction Hydrolysis is coupled to an endergonic reaction through phosphorylation A phosphate group is transferred from ATP to another molecule
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LE 5-4a Adenosine Triphosphate Phosphate group P P P H 2 O Hydrolysis ATP ADP Ribose Adenine Adenosine diphosphate P P P Energy + + Exergonic reaction: Energy can be used for endergonic reaction Phosphorylation : P transferred
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2011 for the course ECON 222 taught by Professor Jeffery during the Spring '11 term at E. Stroudsburg.

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ch 05_Lectures_PPT - jgb - BIOL 100 General Biology Chapter...

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