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7-2 Final Project Submission: Epidemiological Research Study ReportSalmonella in the CaribbeanIHP-330 Principles of EpidemiologySouthern New Hampshire UniversityApril 14, 2020Laquesha Walker
The people of Trinidad and Tobago were researched for different types of Salmonellainfections, due to the eggs that were contaminated and also due to the fact that the farms werenot clean and were unsensitized as well. Such as, Enteritidis, Typhimurium and OtherSalmonella. The times of the research study was done from 1988 to 1997. The people thatthey studied were done among different aged men, women and children. The laboratorydidn’t report the cases of communicable disease to the surveillance system or submit isolatesfor confirmation or further testing, and because of that the salmonella outbreak continued tospread rapidly effecting and even killing people who had the disease.Salmonella is a human pathogen that is usually found in raw meats such as chicken,beef, pork, and contaminated water. It also effects other food and dairy products such as eggs,milk, Salmonella infections can be contracted from pets, food, or exposure to human or petfeces. Salmonella’s risk factors are from not washing your hands or not washing themproperly especially when you encounter an infected person, eating or drinking contaminatedfood and water, contact with infected animals, cross contamination such as not properlycleaning utensils, or preparation surfaces, consuming raw or food that has not been cookedfully. Some of the symptoms associated with salmonella are sudden offset of a headache,diarrhea may become bloody, vomiting, abdominal pain, and nausea. Salmonella may spreadto the blood stream, other body sites, and can cause death unless treated promptly withantibiotics.The mode of transmission is indirect. Indirect transmission occurs when an agent istransferred or carried by some intermediate item, organism, means, or process to a susceptiblehost resulting in disease. (Merrill, 2017). The population contracted Salmonella by thespecific raw egg-containing foods that were implicated by the case patients food historiesincluded homemade eggnog, cake batter, homemade ice cream, punch a crème (i.e., a drinksimilar to eggnog) and stout and eggs (Stehr-Green, August 2004, P.9) Another, transmission
is that Salmonella is naturally in the intestines of many different animals. So, animals withSalmonella shed the bacteria in their stool which easily contaminate their body parts (fur,feathers, or scales) and anything in areas where these animals live and roam (terrarium oraquarium, chicken coop, pen or fencing, countertops, sinks, etc. (CDCP, SalmonellaInfection, September 24, 2015).Humans touch these areas, without washing their hands and after they touch theirmouths, eyes and other objects that they may digest not realizing there is Salmonella on theirhands or in their food. By them not knowing this they continue to spread the salmonella intheir eyes, mouth, and if they consume meat that has salmonella, they can digest it into the