Chapter 5 - o Young pine forest and developing understory...

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Chapter 5 Ecosystems change! Not static o Seasons, weather, life cycles Disturbances to Ecosystems o Natural disasters (volcano, fire, hurricanes, floods, avalanches) o Man-made (clear cut, mountaintop mining, pollution, agriculture, non- native species) Disturbances will alter the ecosystem not necessarily for good or bad, just different Development Primary Succession: bare rocks o No soil, no organic matter, slower (1000s of years) o Bare lava (Hawaii) Secondary succession: abandoned fields (bare soil) o Oil soil, organic matter, faster (100s of years) Primary Succession I and II o Pioneers Rocks, lichens, mosses soil Then Succession III: Grasses and herbaceous plants (non woody stems) Succession IV: shrubs=woody stems Succession V: young forest Climax forest is stable as long as climate remains the same Each biome has different climax community Secondary Succession o Annual weeds o Annual and perennial weeds (annuals die and their seeds grow, perennials return every season) o Pine seedlings and saplings
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Unformatted text preview: o Young pine forest and developing understory of hardwoods o Mature hardwood forests • Aquatic Succession o Nutrient enrichment, break down of organisms in the pond o Climax community can be same as terrestrial habitat, marsh or wetland Dynamics • Equilibrium: constant adjustment to change maintains over all balance through three factors o Feedbacks Positive: outputs that promote the current trend Negative: outputs that interfere with the current trend • Inertia: resistance to change • One change in the nutrients in a ecosystem can greatly affect all life living there: Great Lakes and phosphorous o Species interactions o Population dynamics • Example of Positive Feedback which has a negative outcome: CO2 raises temperature, ice melt reduce albedo (reflective energy from ice) increase temperature • Example of Negative Feedback: grasslands shrubs FIRE (would become trees if not for this output) grasslands...
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Chapter 5 - o Young pine forest and developing understory...

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