PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 5

PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 5 - PHY 118 Final Study...

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PHY 118 Final Study Guide: Chapter 5 I. Clouds and Formation: a. Clouds – Visible aggregate of small water droplets or tiny ice crystals (or both) i. A form of condensation that is a result of water vapor condensing in the atmosphere when a parcel of air ascends to the lifting condensation level and saturation occurs because the air is cooled to its dew point ; Adiabatic Cooling is vital to formation b. Cloud Condensation Nuclei – Surfaces on which water vapor condenses i. If these are not present, a relative humidity well over 100% is needed to create precipitation ii. Sources on land include: dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen; combustion from fires, cars, and coal furnaces iii. Sources over sea include: salt particles iv. Hygroscopic Nuclei – Materials that quickly absorb moisture when exposed to humid air; most effective sites for condensation c. Growth of Cloud Droplets i. Initial growth is rapid because there is a large excess of water vapor, growth quickly diminishes as available water vapor diminishes ii. The formation of a cloud results because the water droplets that formed are so small that they remain suspended in the air d. Types of Clouds: i. Cirrus – Separated, high, white, thin clouds that extend wispy fibers ii. Cumulus – Globular, individual cloud masses with flat bases and appear as towers iii. Stratus – Sheets/layers of aggregate clouds (no individual clouds) that cover most of the sky iv. High – (Cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus) 1. Made up of ice crystals 2. Not precipitation makers
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PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 5 - PHY 118 Final Study...

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