PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 6

# PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 6 - PHY 118 Final Study...

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PHY 118 Final Study Guide: Chapter 6 I. Air Pressure: a. Measured in milibars (mb) which equal 100 Newtons per square meter b. Mercury Barometer, Aneroid Barometer, and Barograph: c. Decreasing pressure is associated with increasing cloudiness and precipitation d. Increasing pressure is associated with clearing conditions e. Increase in Density = Increase in Pressure (with constant temperature) f. Increase in Altitude = Decrease in Pressure and Density II. Horizontal Variations in Air Pressure: a. Small variations can generate violent winds b. Temperature + Water Vapor: i. Warmer temperature = lower pressure; Colder temperature = higher pressure 1. In conjunction with this: Warm air = less dense; Cold air = more dense ii. Increase in Water Vapor in the air = Decrease of air’s Density 1. (Nitrogen and oxygen weigh more than water vapor) 2. Humid Air is Less Dense than Dry Air iii. Cold + Dry air mass causes higher surface pressures than a warm + moist air mass iv. Warm + Dry air mass causes higher surface pressures than the same temperature + moist air mass c. Airflow + Pressure: i. Convergence (net flow into an area) causes air to increase its altitude and create a heavier air mass = Increase pressure ii. Divergence (net flow out of area) causes air to spread out horizontally and create a lighter air mass = Decrease pressure III.Factors that Affect Wind: (The horizontal movement of air) a. Result of horizontal differences in pressure i. Differences are caused by solar radiations unequal heating of the planet b. Pressure-Gradient Force (P-GF): i. Wind moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure ii. The greater the pressure differences between areas, the greater the speeds of the wind iii. Isobars – Lines on a map that connect areas of equal pressure

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PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 6 - PHY 118 Final Study...

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