PHY 118 Final Study Guide: Chapter 10 (2) I. Tornadoes: ( “freight train”) a. Violent wind storms that take the form of a rotating column of air ( vortex) that extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud b. Highly localized and randomly distributed c. Form in association with severe thunderstorms that produce high winds, heavy rain, and hail i. Portion of t-storm next to large hail is where strong tornadoes commonly occur ii. Cold fronts iii. Squall lines iv. Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes) v. Most intense form with supercells d. Multiple Vortex Tornadoes – Small, intense whirls ( suction vortices) that orbit the center of the larger tornado circulation i. Suction Vortices last only a minute but are responsible for the narrow and short swaths of extreme damage resulting from tornadoes ii. Maximum winds can exceed 300 mph e. Development: i. Pre-condition = development of Mesocyclone 1. Vertical cylinder of rotating air that develops in the updraft of a severe thunderstorm 2.
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