PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 13

PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 13 - PHY 118 Final Study...

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PHY 118 Final Study Guide: Chapter 13 I. Air Pollutants : Airborne particles and gases that occur in concentrations that endanger the health and well-being of organisms OR disrupt the orderly functioning environment a. Primary Pollutants : Emitted directly from an identifiable source; pollute the air immediately upon being emitted b. Secondary Pollutants : Produced in the atmosphere when certain chemical reactions occur among Primary Pollutants i. Ex: Chemicals that make up smog II. Major Primary Pollutants: a. Particulate Matter (PM) - A mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air i. Fine Particles (PM 2.5) - have a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers 1. Main sources include: fuel combustion of vehicles, power generation, industrial factories, fireplaces, and wood stoves 2. Inhalation causes serious health dangers including heart and lung disease, and even premature death ii. Coarse Particles (PM 10) have a diameter above 2.5 micrometers 1. Main sources include: vehicles traveling on unpaved roads, materials handling, crushing/grinding operations, and windblown dust 2. Inhalation causes aggravation of respiratory conditions (ex. Asthma) iii. Reduce visibility, leave deposits of dirt on the surfaces they contact, damage paint, and damage building materials b. Sulfur Dioxide – Colorless and corrosive gas that originates mainly from the combustion of fuels containing sulfur (Coal + Oil) i. Main sources include: power plants, smelters, petroleum refineries, and pulp + paper mills ii. Once in the air, it is frequently transformed into Sulfur Trioxide which reacts with water vapor or water droplets to form Sulfuric Acid ; when this is “washed out” of the air it takes the form of Acid Rain (a very serious environmental issue) iii. High concentrations of sulfur dioxide can result in temporary breathing impairment for asthmatic victims; long terms effects include respiratory illness and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease c. Nitrogen Oxides – Gases that form during the high-temperature combustion of fuel when nitrogen, in the fuel or in the air, reacts with oxygen i. Main sources include: motor vehicles and power plants ii. Initial product is nitrogen oxide (NO); when it oxidizes further it becomes
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2011 for the course PHY 118 taught by Professor Schroeder during the Spring '11 term at Miami University.

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PHY 118 final study guide -chapter 13 - PHY 118 Final Study...

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