ARE 3434 Exam 2

ARE 3434 Exam 2 - ARE 3434 Exam #2 Study Guide 1. Please...

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ARE 3434 Exam #2 Study Guide 1. Please define and explain the differences in the following political/administrative actions for authorizing or changing environmental policies/programs. Also give an example of each (Ch. 8): a. Statutes : Primary modes of action for the nation’s environmental problems New statutes (CAA 1990) Amended statutes (CAA Amendments1977) Changes in funding (e.g. annual appropriations) b. Regulations : Statutes don’t implement themselves Need to issue or revise regulations Develop new programs under existing statutes Enforcement (scarce resources or policy preferences can effect enforcement efforts) c. Executive Orders: May require certain agency behavior or establish new public initiatives Sometimes controversial; sidestep Congress Revocable by the next President; also a court may declare an EO to be invalid d. Institutional Changes: Changes in the organizational structure of the policy process Appointments to public agencies Change agency organization Change Executive Office organization Reorganization of Congressional committees Public advisory committees 2. Please explain the following approaches to environmental policy and give a specific example of each (Ch. 8): 1. Command and Control: a. Historically the mainstay of environmental policy b. Technology standards c. Performance standards d. A performance standard can effectively become a technology standard 2. Incentive-based:
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a. Take advantage of information asymmetries inherent in regulation b. Offer polluters an incentive to reduce emissions in a cost-effective manner c. Emission charges, input/output taxes, subsidies and market-based programs 3. Information-based policies: a. Increase available information on which to base judgments and actions b. National Environmental Policy Act (1970) requires environmental impact studies c. Public release of environmental information: i. EPA Environmental Indicators Program ii. Toxic Release Inventory iii. Energy Star 4. Voluntary programs: a. Polluters are asked to take steps to reduce their impacts on the environment b. Green Light, 33/50, Project XL c. Motivations to participate: feeling of civic virtue, desire to escape formal public regulation, publicity value; promote “green” image d. Extent to which voluntary programs motivate behavior 3. Please describe The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS’s) as established in the Clean Air Act? What are 2 examples of stationary source controls and 2 examples of mobile source controls that have been put into place to achieve these standards? (Ch. 9) NAAQS’s Established in the 1970 CAA Apply to all the regions in the country, to outside air, specify never-exceed level for criteria pollutants Primary standards (CO) and secondary standards (SO 2 3-hour average); most criteria pollutants have standards that meet both the purposes EPA has the power to set NAAQSs, the Congress has specified the basis for doing
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ARE 3434 Exam 2 - ARE 3434 Exam #2 Study Guide 1. Please...

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