biol_119_lecture_9_9-21-09

biol_119_lecture_9_9-21-09 - Lecture 9, 9-21-2009 The end...

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Lecture 9, 9-21-2009 The end of chapter 40 and then on to chapter 42! Review class today 3:30 to 4:20 in Newton 201
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Which tissue is incorrectly matched A. Epithelial tissue covers the ouside of the body and lines organs and cavities. B. Connective tissue is a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. C. Muscle tissue contains long cells capable of contracting. D. Blood is a type of connective tissue. E. Adipose tissue is an example of epithelial tissue.
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A. Energy Allocation and Use: After the energetic needs of staying alive are met, any remaining molecules from food can be used in biosynthesis, growth, storage and reproduction Animals are heterotrophs that harvest chemical energy from the food they eat Once the food has been digested, the energy- containing molecules are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work
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Metabolic rate can be determined several ways. Because nearly all the chemical energy used in cellular respiration eventually appears as heat, metabolic rate can be measured by monitoring an animal’s heat loss. A more indirect way to measure metabolic rate is to determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced by an animal’s cellular respiration. B. Quantifying Energy Use
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The metabolic rate of a nongrowing endotherm at rest, with an empty stomach, and experiencing no stress is called the basal metabolic rate ( BMR ). The BMR for humans averages abut 1,600 to 1,800 kcal per day for adult males and about 1,300 to 1,500 kcal per day for adult females. In ectotherms, body temperature changes with temperature of the surroundings, and so does metabolic rate. Therefore, the minimal metabolic rate of an ectotherm must be determined at a specific temperature. The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, non-stressed ectotherm is called its standard metabolic rate ( SMR ). C. Minimum metabolic rate and thermoregulation
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Size Activity Maximal metabolic rates (the highest rates of ATP utilization) occur during peak activity, such as lifting heavy weights, all-out running, or high-speed swimming. In general, an animal’s maximum possible metabolic rate is inversely related to the duration of the activity. D. Influences on metabolic rate
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E. Energy Budgets: animals differ in the amount of energy that goes to various activities Endotherms: spend their energy five ways: BMR, activity, reproduction, growth and thermoregulation Ectotherms: spend their energy four ways: SMR, activity, reproduction, and growth
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F. Torpor and Energy Conservation We covered this on Friday when we discussed balancing heat loss and gain!
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How can one measure metabolic rate? A. By measuring the amount of oxygen consumed B. By measuring the amount of carbon dioxide consumed C. By measuring the amount of heat released D. By measuring the amount of carbon dioxide released E. A, C and D
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Increased body size with multiple cell layers require special circulatory and respiratory systems to work efficiently.
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biol_119_lecture_9_9-21-09 - Lecture 9, 9-21-2009 The end...

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