biol_119__lecture_8__9-18-09

biol_119__lecture_8__9-18-09 - Lecture 8 Chapter 40...

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Lecture 8, 9-18-09 Chapter 40, continued
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Which one of the following does not belong to the archosaur group? A. birds B. dinosaurs C. alligators D. crocodiles A. none of the above
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B. Exchange with the Environment An animal’s size and shape have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings. Animal cells must have enough surface area in contact with an aqueous medium to allow adequate environmental exchange of dissolved oxygen, nutrients and wastes. This requirement imposes constraints on animal size and shape. As a requirement for maintaining the fluid integrity of the plasma membrane of its cells, an animal’s body must be arranged so that all of its living cells are bathed in an aqueous medium. Exchange with the environment occurs as dissolved substances diffuse and are transported across the plasma membranes between the cells and their aqueous surroundings.
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What is the ratio of surface area to volume for a cube whose side is 3mm in length? A. 1:1 B. 2:1 C. 3:1 D. 4:1
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Surface to volume ratio
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A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm (40.3a) Cnidaria have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials (40.3b) Figure 40.3b
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Many animals have small surface area to volume ratios. This has led to A. elaborate circulatory systems B. advances in respiratory systems C. increased animal size D. both A and B E. A, B and C
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Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals: organisms with more complex body plans have highly folded internal surfaces specialized for exchanging materials
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Interstitial fluid The internal environment of vertebrates is called the interstitial fluid . This fluid exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood contained in microscopic vessels called capillaries. It was recognized that many animals tend to maintain relatively constant conditions (temperature and pH) in their internal environment, even when the external environment changes.
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C. Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2011 for the course BIO 119 taught by Professor O'donnellandspear during the Spring '07 term at SUNY Geneseo.

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biol_119__lecture_8__9-18-09 - Lecture 8 Chapter 40...

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