biol_119_lecture_12_9-30-09

biol_119_lecture_12_9-30-09 - BioClub Picnic Who: You!...

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Unformatted text preview: BioClub Picnic Who: You! What: Free food and awesome people/ activities. Where: Doty Field When: 4-6 Friday Oct 2nd Why: Relax, get to know your peers and professors and eat up. Forensic Science: Fact vs. Fiction Jaime Hoey (Geneseo 03) Westchester County Forensic Laboratory Forensic Biology Section Biology Department Seminar Friday, October 2 2 pm Newton 203 Lecture 12, 9-30-2009 End of 43 Which statement is false A. Most CO 2 is carried as bicarbonate ions in the plasma B. The binding of O 2 to Hb is described as cooperative C. A pH of 7 lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for O 2 compared to a pH of 7.4 D. Adaptive immunity is first seen in gnathostomes A. Mammals maintain a higher p in the lungs than birds because they ventilate their lungs Cellular Innate Defenses White blood cells (leukocytes) engulf pathogens and fuse it with a lysosome (neutrophils and macrophages) or they can release destructive enzymes (basophils and eosinophils) Groups of pathogens are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR ) Inflammatory Responses Following an injury, mast cells release histamine , which promotes changes in blood vessels. These changes increase local blood supply and allow more phagocytes and antimicrobial proteins to enter tissues Inflammation can be either local or systemic (throughout the body) Fever is a systemic inflammatory response triggered by pyrogens released by macrophages, and toxins from pathogens Septic shock is a life-threatening condition caused by an overwhelming inflammatory response Natural Killer Cells All cells in the body (except red blood cells) have a class 1 MHC protein on their surface Cancerous or virally infected cells sometimes downregulate the expression of this protein; natural killer (NK) cells attack these damaged cells C. Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens Concept 43.2: In acquired immunity, lymphocyte receptors provide pathogen- specific recognition White blood cells called lymphocytes recognize and respond to antigens, foreign molecules Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus are called T cells , and those that mature in the bone marrow are called B cells A. Acquired Immunity: An Overview B cells and T cells have receptor proteins that can bind to foreign molecules Each individual lymphocyte is specialized to recognize a specific type of molecule A single B cell or T cell has about 100,000 identical antigen receptors B. Antigen Recognition by Lymphocytes An antigen is any foreign molecule to which a lymphocyte responds All antigen receptors on a single lymphocyte recognize the same epitope , or antigenic determinant , on an antigen B cell receptors...
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biol_119_lecture_12_9-30-09 - BioClub Picnic Who: You!...

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