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Study Guide- Final

# Study Guide- Final - 1 How to find where you are on the...

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1. How to find where you are on the earth (altitude of Polaris from different places on earth). Latitude: - Find north or south celestial pole - Latitude is equal to the altitude if the celestial pole in your sky - In Northern Hemisphere determine your approximate lat. by measuring the altitude of Polaris - In the daytime, you can find your latitude from the Sun’s altitude on your meridian if you know the date and have a table that tells you the Sun’s declination on that date. Rule- the celestial equator crosses the meridian at an altitude is 90 ° minus that latitude. If celestial equator crosses the meridian in the South you are in the Northern Hemisphere Longitude: - You must know the position of the Sun or a star in your sky and its position at the same time in the sky of Greenwich, England. - You must have a clock that tells universal time - “2 hours west of Greenwich” means longitude 30 ° 2. Daily and yearly motions of the stars and the sun. Cause of the seasons. 3. A few things I think you should memorize : Basic scales of time . If 13 or 14 billion years, the age of the universe, is condensed to one year, when does earth form? When do the earliest humans appear? When does civilization (cities) appear? 4. Basic scales of distance: Earth-Moon, Solar System, and Galaxy. Remember the scale model solar system. If the sun was a grapefruit, about how large would earth be, and how far away? How many sun diameters is the earth from the sun? (about 100) How many earth diameters is the moon from the earth (about 30). 5. Different kinds of energy: kinetic, potential, nuclear (rest-mass energy). The definition of temperature, and of heat content. 6. Kepler's Laws. Don't memorize them, but know what they mean, what objects they apply to , and what they are used for . Know how the orbital period changes if you change the mass of the star or the mass of the planet (one changes the period significantly, one doesn’t!) 7. Different kinds of spectra and when they are seen (emission, absorption, continuous.) 8. How the spectrum of a solid body such as a planet changes with temperature. 9. How motions can be measured using the Doppler Effect. 10. How areas and volumes change when you change the size of an object.

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11. Why the sky is blue and sunsets are red. Why an eclipsed moon is red. 12. Chapter 6 – Telescopes Refractors and reflectors, and which is like your eye Why do we build large telescopes? What is angular resolution ? What radiation does the atmosphere stop? What does it not? Two reasons to put telescopes into space 13. Chapter 14 – Our Star (The Sun) What elements does the sun contain? Where did they come from? The outer part of the sun is convective – what does that mean? Two ways of “seeing inside” the sun The application of E = mc 2 to the sun (fusion, and mass conversion to energy) How solar eruptions affect the earth 14.
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