Cell Bio studyguide

Cell Bio studyguide - Cell Bio studyguide 75% cytoskeleton...

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Unformatted text preview: Cell Bio studyguide 75% cytoskeleton -> transcription 25% errthing else Er rthing else: Emergent Properties: When properties emerge for a whole system that are not seen when looking at just the components. Systems Biology: interdisciplinary field focuses on complex interactions of biological systems (not reductionist!). Based on the premise that to understand an organism, have to understand the reactions that occur between cells, proteins, and genes. 3 Threads of modern cell biology: 1. Cytology-descriptive/ study of cells using microscopes a. Robert Hooke 1665 (Father of Microscopy) cut cork and observed small compartments. cellulae from Latin small room b. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (Father of Microbiology) early 1700s builtmany microscopes and described small organisms c. 1830s: i. Robert Brown every plant cell has a nucleus ii. Matthias Schleiden- All plant tissues are composed of cells, plant embryo arises from single cell. iii. Theodor Schwann- all animal tissues composed of cells d. Schleiden + Schwann developed Cell Theory i. All organisms are composed of one or more cells ii. The cell is the basic structural unit for all organisms iii. (Virchow added) All cells arise only from preexisting cells (no spontaneous generation) iv. Modern day also: Cells contain hereditary information that is passed from cell to cell during cell division v. All cells are similar in chemical composition vi. All energy flow (metabolism) of life occurs within cells. e. Development of Electron Microscopy (EM) invented by Ernst Ruska, 100 times better resolution. 2. Genetics-heredity a. Gregor Mendel- 1865 Father of Modern Genetics- garden pea experiments hereditary factors (now genes) b. Strasburger (plants) and Flemming (animals) discovered chromosomes and cell division c. Sutton- formulated chromosome theory of heredity. Linked chromosomes to genes d. Thomas Hunt Morgan (1910-1920) linked specific traits (genes) to chromosomes with Drosophila 3. Biochemistry- Study of enzymes/chemical reactions in cells a. Friedrich Wohler (1800-1882)- synthesized urea (first time organic compound from inorganic origins, broke down barriers between living/nonliving world) b. Fischer-isolated/identified/synthesized many organic substances found in plants/animals c. Pasteur-fermentation caused by microorganism (not spontaneous generation) d. Buchner- isolated cell-free extract of yeast to ferment sugar- proteins responsible? e. Claude- used EM to identify cell components, discovered chloroplasts, used centrifugation Modern Cell Biology: Integration of cytology, genetics, biochem -> molecular biology/molecular genetics 1. Hershey and Chase (1952) a. Figured out DNA is genetic material, not protein using bacteriophage T2 virus. Observed DNA enters bacteria, not protein....
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Cell Bio studyguide - Cell Bio studyguide 75% cytoskeleton...

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