"low" or "noble".
Symbols, heroes, rituals, and values
Cultural differences manifest themselves in several ways - symbols, heroes, rituals, and values.
The ‘onion diagram’:
Manifestations of culture at different
levels of depth
Symbols are words, gestures, pictures or objects that carry a particular meaning which is only recognized
those who share the culture. The words in a language or jargon belong to this category, as do dress,
Coca-Cola, flags. New symbols are easily developed and old ones disappear.
Heroes are persons, alive or dead, real or imaginary, who possess characteristics which are highly prized
culture, and who thus serve as models for behavior.
Snoopy in the USA, Asterix in France.
Rituals are collective activities, technically superfluous in reaching desired ends, but which, within a
considered as socially essential: they are therefore carried out for their own sake. Ways of greeting and
respect to others, social and religious ceremonies are examples.
Symbols, heroes, rituals can be subsumed under the term practices.
The core of culture is formed by values. Values are broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over