Lectures7-UNIX - UNIX 163 Operating systems An operating...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIX 163 Operating systems An operating system (OS) is a piece of software that controls the hardware and other pieces of software on your computer. The most popular OS today, Microsoft Windows, uses a graphical user interface (GUI) for you to interact with the OS. This is easy to learn but not very powerful. UNIX, on the other hand, is hard at Frst to learn, but it allows you vastly more control over what your computer can do. There area actually many different avors of UNIX, but what well cover applies to almost all of them. 164 Aside: Mac OS is actually built on top of the UNIX kernel, so everything well do here you can also do on the lab computers. To get to a window with a UNIX command line (called a terminal), go to Applications > Utilities > Terminal. If youre on a Windows machine, there are programs to emulate what a UNIX machine would do, such as Cygwin and VirtualBox. Another option would be to connect remotely to one of the lab machines, which well discuss how to do. 165 The differences between, say, Windows and UNIX stem from an underlying philosophy about what software should do. Windows: Programs are large, multi-functional. Example: Microsoft Word. UNIX: Many small programs, which can be combined to get the job done. A toolbox approach. Example: stop all my (cgks) processes whose name begins with cat and a space: ps -u cgk | grep [0-9] cat | awk {print$2} | xargs kill 166 The UNIX kernel is the part of the OS that actually carries out basic tasks. The UNIX shell is the user interface to the kernel. Like Favors of UNIX, there are also many different shells. or this course, it doesnt matter which one you use. The default on the lab computers is called tcsh . the prompt - yours will differ 167 The frst thing you need to know about UNIX are how to work with directories and fles . Technically, everything in UNIX is a fle, but its easier to think oF directories as you would Folders on Windows or Mac OS. 168 Directories are organized in an inverted tree structure . To see the directory youre currently in, type the command pwd (present working directory). There are two special directories: The top level directory, named /, is called the root directory . Your home directory , named ~, contains all your fles. For Mary, ~ and /users/mary mean the same thing. 169 To create a new directory, use the command mkdir . Then to move into it, use cd . $ pwd /Users/cgk $ mkdir unixexamples $ cd unixexamples $ ls $ ls -a . .. ls -a means to show all fles, including the hidden fles starting with a dot (.). The two hidden fles here are special and exist in every directory. . reFers to the current directory, and .. reFers to the directory above it....
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2011 for the course BUS 103 taught by Professor Opp during the Fall '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lectures7-UNIX - UNIX 163 Operating systems An operating...

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