REl Study Guide 2

REl Study Guide 2 - RELStudyGuideTest2 Adoptionism Dynamic...

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REL Study Guide Test 2 Trinitarian and Christological Controversies Adoptionism- Dynamic Monarchiasm. Jesus is adopted by God at baptism. Rejected n=by first council  of Nicaea. Modalism/Sabellianism- Nontrinitarian belief that the Father, Son and HS are different modes or aspects of one God, [rather than three distinct personis in God Himself.]- Orthodox. Sabellus Subordinationism- Son & Holy Spirit are subordinate to the Father. Tertullian - First theologian to use the term Trinity. Dates and major decisions for all the major councils0098 I. Council of Nicaea, 325 a) Emperor Constantine calls council for purpose of unity (Christianity had just been made a “legal religion” with Constantine’s “conversion”) b) Nicene Creed: Solution is use of homoousios  to describe divinity of Christ; Christ is “of the same essence,” consubstantial with the Father (use of non-biblical term to define orthodoxy) c) For first time, a Christian heretic was condemned by a secular ruler for believing the wrong doctrine d) Athanasius of Alexandria emerges as leader of orthodox/homoousios party. II. Council of Constantinople, 381 a) They denied divinity of Holy Spirit: a creature b) Council affirmed consubstantiality of Father, Son, Holy Spirit c) Homoiousios is rejected d) The Trinity: One God in three equal (divine) eternal persons III. Council of Ephesus, 431 a) Nestorius charged with teaching the nature of Jesus Christ as two persons   because he affirmed a conjunction (harmony) of wills, not a union of the wills in terms of their essence b) Related issue: Mother Mary 1. Christotokos vs. Theotokos 2. Nestorius affirmed Christotokos (Mother of Christ) but not Theotokos (Mother of God) 3. Theotokos is maintained by the Church c) Decision at the Council 1. Nestorius Condemned 2. 433, Formula of Reunion- a “union of two natures” IV. Council of Chalcedon, 451 a) Result: Christ was in two natures, without confusion, mixture, change, division or separation
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Homoousios, homoiousios, heteroousios I. Homoousios- Son & Father are of the same II. Homoiousios- of a similar substance III. Heteroousios- of a different substance Arius – views I. He promotes subordinationism I. To preserve the oneness, and absolute transcendence of God II. Subordination of Son III. A creature, not eternal; “there was a time when He (Son)was not” IV. Father and Son are heteroousios (of different essence) V. Father unbegotten; Son begotten Athanasius- Athanasius of Alexandria emerges as leader of orthodox/homoousios party Apollinarius I. Why did Jesus not sin? II. Answer found in the trichotomy of the human being III. Body, soul and spirit IV. According to Apollinarius, Christ had human body, soul; Logos replaced human mind V. Apollinarius maximizes divinity but undercut humanity in the process VI. Council condemned and affirmed the full humanity of Christ Pneumatomachians I. They denied divinity of Holy Spirit: a creature II. Council affirmed consubstantiality of Father, Son, Holy Spirit III. Homoiousios is rejected IV.
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