REl Study Guide 2 - RELStudyGuideTest2 Adoptionism Dynamic...

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REL Study Guide Test 2Trinitarian and Christological ControversiesAdoptionism- Dynamic Monarchiasm. Jesus is adopted by God at baptism. Rejected n=by first council of Nicaea.Modalism/Sabellianism- Nontrinitarian belief that the Father, Son and HS are different modes or aspects of one God, [rather than three distinct personis in God Himself.]- Orthodox. SabellusSubordinationism- Son & Holy Spirit are subordinate to the Father. Tertullian - First theologian to use the term Trinity. Dates and major decisions for all the major councils0098I.Council of Nicaea, 325a)Emperor Constantine calls council for purpose of unity (Christianity had just been made a “legal religion” with Constantine’s “conversion”)b)Nicene Creed: Solution is use of homoousios to describe divinity of Christ; Christ is “of the same essence,” consubstantial with the Father (use of non-biblical term to define orthodoxy)c)For first time, a Christian heretic was condemned by a secular ruler for believing the wrong doctrined)Athanasius of Alexandria emerges as leader of orthodox/homoousios party. II.Council of Constantinople, 381a)They denied divinity of Holy Spirit: a creatureb)Council affirmed consubstantiality of Father, Son, Holy Spiritc)Homoiousiosis rejectedd)The Trinity: One God in three equal (divine) eternal personsIII.Council of Ephesus, 431a)Nestorius charged with teaching the nature of Jesus Christ as two persons because he affirmed a conjunction (harmony) of wills, not a union of the wills in terms of their essenceb)Related issue: Mother Mary1.Christotokos vs. Theotokos 2.Nestorius affirmed Christotokos (Mother of Christ) but not Theotokos (Mother of God)3.Theotokos is maintained by the Churchc) Decision at the Council1.Nestorius Condemned2.433, Formula of Reunion- a “union of two natures”IV. Council of Chalcedon, 451a)Result: Christ was in two natures, without confusion, mixture, change, division or separation
Homoousios, homoiousios, heteroousiosI.Homoousios- Son & Father are of the sameII.Homoiousios- of a similar substanceIII.Heteroousios- of a different substanceArius – viewsI.He promotes subordinationismI.To preserve the oneness, and absolute transcendence of GodII.Subordination of SonIII. A creature, not eternal; “there was a time when He (Son)was not”IV.Father and Son are heteroousios(of different essence)V.Father unbegotten; Son begottenAthanasius- Athanasius of Alexandria emerges as leader of orthodox/homoousios partyApollinariusI.Why did Jesus not sin?II.Answer found in the trichotomy of the human beingIII. Body, soul and spiritIV. According to Apollinarius, Christ had human body, soul; Logos replaced human mind V.Apollinarius maximizes divinity but undercut humanity in the processVI.Council condemned and affirmed the full humanity of ChristPneumatomachiansI.They denied divinity of Holy Spirit: a creatureII.Council affirmed consubstantiality of Father, Son, Holy SpiritIII.Homoiousiosis rejectedIV.

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