Atmospheric_Structure_F10_Lect6

Atmospheric_Structure_F10_Lect6 - Atmospheric Structure and...

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Atmospheric Structure and Processes Fall 2010, Lecture 6 1
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Tropospheric Properties As altitude increases within the troposphere, temperature decreases Heating is from the ground up Mountain climbers experience cooling at altitude At the level of the tropopause, a temperature minimum occurs – about -70º C 2
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Stratospheric Properties Above the tropopause, the temperature begins to climb again The ozone layer within the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and reradiates it in the infrared This produces in-situ heating Since the UV radiation comes from the sun, heating is strongest at the top of the stratosphere 3
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Pressure Pressure is the force per unit area applied perpendicular to the surface of an object 4
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Response to Pressure Compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure change Objects may be said to be compressible or incompressible, depending on the degree of volume change they experience per unit of pressure 5
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Compression of Water Water is often said to be incompressible At a depth of 4 km, with pressures are around 40 megapascals, water has a volume decrease of 1.8% At 0º C, the compressibility is less than one part in a billion per Pascal (One atmosphere is 101,000 Pascals) 6
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Linear Pressure Response As the figure shows, this means that water shows a linear response to an increase in pressure 7
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Non-Linear Pressure Response The figure is a graph of the actual change in pressure with increasing altitude, and is clearly non-linear At an altitude of 8 kilometers, pressure is half as much as at sea-level This is because the atmosphere is compressible Vertical scale is km 8
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Compressible vs. Incompressible The figure shows a response to pressure by a compressible substance (air), and an incompressible substance, water There is more air per meter at low altitude than at higher altitude The amount of water per meter does not depend on the depth to a significant extent 9
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Exponential Function The change in pressure with altitude is an example of an exponential function Q = e kx , where: o Q = quantity in question o k is a constant, which may be positive or negative o x is a variable o e is an irrational number equal to 2.718281828….
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